This book had its genesis in a symposium on gas hydrates presented at the 2003 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers presented in four sessions over two days. Additional guest authors were invited to provide continuity and cover topics not addressed during the symposium. Gas hydrates are a unique class of chemical compounds where molecules of one compound (the guest material) are enclosed, without bonding chemically, within an open solid lattice composed of another compound (the host material). These types of configurations are known as clathrates. The guest molecules, u- ally gases, are of an appropriate size such that they fit within the cage formed by the host material. Commonexamples of gas hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At standard pressure and temperature, methane hydrate contains by volume 180 times as much methane as hydrate. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has estimated that there is more organic carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other forms of fossil fuels combined. In fact, methane hydrates could provide a clean source of energy for several centuries. Clathrate compounds were first discovered in the early 1800s when Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday were experimenting with chlorine-water mixtures.
GAS HYDRATE IN WATER TREATMENT Explores current progress in the expanding field of gas hydrate-based desalination As potable water shortages continue to affect billions of people worldwide, seawater desalination and wastewater treatment have the potential to meet freshwater demands in the near future. Gas hydrate-based desalination, a process which requires CO2 and water as solvent, has become an increasingly popular approach—desalination with hydrates is environmentally friendly and can produce cheaper desalted water than other existing conventional technologies. Gas Hydrate in Water Treatment: Technological, Economic, and Industrial Aspects provides detailed, up-to-date reference to the application of gas hydrates in wastewater and seawater desalination treatment. Edited by experienced researchers in the field, this comprehensive volume describes the fundamental aspects of desalination and summarizes the latest research on gas hydrate-based desalination. The authors address a broad range of key topics, including issues related to water scarcity, post-treatment of desalinated water using both conventional and new technologies, hydrate-based desalination methods driven by renewable energy sources, and more. Provides thorough coverage of the technological, waste brine management, economic, and renewable energy and remineralization aspects of gas hydrate-based wastewater treatment Describes the energetic, economic, and environmental impact of gas hydrate desalination Explains the core concepts of gas hydrate-based desalination to help readers evaluate the performance of existing desalination processes Discusses the advantages and challenges of hydrate-based water treatment Compares conventional and gas hydrate technologies used in water treatment Reviews the most recent research in gas hydrate-based desalination Gas Hydrate in Water Treatment: Technological, Economic, and Industrial Aspects is an essential resource for all academics, researchers, process engineers, designers, industry professionals, and advanced students in the field.
Gas hydrates are both a huge energy resource and an environmental challenge. They have a significant impact on society because of their applications to the future of energy, protection of the environment and fuel transportation. Gas Hydrates opens up this fascinating, multidisciplinary field to non-specialists. It provides a scientific study of gas hydrates that considers their potential as an energy source while assessing the possible risk to the environment. The authors also examine the feasibility of using these natural compounds for storing and transporting gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Diagrams and photos are used throughout Gas Hydrates to help readers understand the scientific and technical content. Each section has been designed so it can be read independently by academics and professionals in the oil and gas industry, as well as by all those with an interest in how hydrates combine to be an energy resource, an industrial challange and a geological hazard.
Clathrate Hydrates All-inclusive reference on clathrate hydrates from a molecular perspective Clathrate hydrates are crystalline water-based inclusion compounds many of which form at high pressures and low temperatures. Molecular science has provided the foundation for many areas of modern hydrate research and applications ranging from desalination processes to flow assurance in oil and gas pipelines. Clathrate Hydrates provides detailed information on the molecular science aspects of hydrate research, covering the structural, compositional, spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of clathrate hydrates as well as simulation methods and selected engineering applications. Edited and authored by recognized leaders in the field, this comprehensive resource introduces readers to clathrate hydrates and reviews the state-of-the-art of the field. In-depth chapters address different areas of specialization such as characterization of clathrate hydrates using NMR spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray and neutron diffraction and scattering. Highlights recent developments in clathrate hydrate research and applications such as natural gas recovery, desalination, and gas separation Reviews various molecular simulation methods for characterizing clathrate hydrates, including quantum mechanical calculations and Monte Carlo results Contains tables of known guest molecules, summaries of structural and physical properties, and different classes of clathrate hydrate phase equilibria Introduces unconventional guest-host interactions, related non-hydrate clathrates, and space-filling cages using the Frank-Kasper approach Covers the molecular motion of guest and host molecules and the relationship between cage geometry and guest dynamics Presents the rate and mechanisms of hydrate formation and decomposition from both macroscopic and microscopic points Clathrate Hydrates: Molecular Science and Characterization is an indispensable reference for materials scientists, physical chemists, chemical engineers, geochemists, and graduate students in relevant areas of science and engineering.
Hydrate research has expanded substantially over the past decade, resulting in more than 4,000 hydrate-related publications. Collating this vast amount of information into one source, Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases, Third Edition presents a thoroughly updated, authoritative, and comprehensive description of all major aspects of natural gas cla
Natural gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy and an important source of many bulk chemicals and speciality chemicals. It is one of the cleanest, safest, and most useful of all energy sources, and helps to meet the world's rising demand for cleaner energy into the future. However, exploring, producing and bringing gas to the user or converting gas into desired chemicals is a systematical engineering project, and every step requires thorough understanding of gas and the surrounding environment. Any advances in the process link could make a step change in gas industry. There have been increasing efforts in gas industry in recent years. With state-of-the-art contributions by leading experts in the field, this book addressed the technology advances in natural gas industry.
Challenges and Recent Advances in Sustainable Oil and Gas Recovery and Transportation delivers a critical tool for today’s petroleum and reservoir engineers to learn the latest research in EOR and solutions toward more SDG-supported practices. Packed with methods and case studies, the reference starts with the latest advances such as EOR with polymers and EOR with CCS. Advances in shale recovery and methane production are also covered before layering on sustainability methods on critical topics such as oilfield produced water. Supported by a diverse group of contributors, this book gives engineers a go-to source for the future of oil and gas. The oil and gas industry are utilizing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods frequently, but the industry is also tasked with making more sustainable decisions in their future operations. Provides the latest advances in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), including EOR with polymers, EOR with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), and hybrid EOR approaches Teaches options in recovery and transport, such as shale recovery and methane production from gas hydrate reservoirs Includes sustainability methods such as biological souring and oil field produced water solutions
The International Conference on Energy, Environment and Materials Science (EEMS2015) was held in Guangzhou, China, from August 25 - 26, 2015. EEMS2015 provided a platform for academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results within the fields of energy science, energy technology, environmental science, environmental engineering, motivation, automation and electrical engineering, material science and engineering, the discovery or development of energy, and environment and materials science.