This report assesses the operational performance of explosives-detection equipment and hardened unit-loading devices (HULDs) in airports and compares their operational performance to their laboratory performance, with a focus on improving aviation security.
Filling a critical gap in aviation engineering literature, this unique and timely resource provides you with a thorough introduction to aviation system security. It enables you to understand the challenges the industry faces and how they are being addressed. You get a complete analysis of the current aviation security standards ARINC 811, ED-127 and the draft SC-216. The book offers you an appreciation for the diverse collection of members within the aviation industry. Moreover, you find a detailed treatment of methods used to design security controls that not only meet individual corporate interests of a stakeholder, but also work towards the holistic securing of the entire industry. This forward-looking volume introduces exiting new areas of aviation security research and techniques for solving todayOCOs the most challenging problems, such as security attack identification and response.
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001, there has been a plethora of legislation and acts resulting in security screening of airline passengers and their baggage to the deployment of newer and more updated security technologies, aimed at closing this alarming gap in security. This new book examines additional proposals and actions not only from Congress, but the FAA as well. Contents: Preface; Aviation Security Technologies and Procedures: Screening Passengers and Baggage; Selected Aviation Security Legislation in the Aftermath of the September 11 Attack; Vulnerabilities in, and Alternatives for, Pre-board Screening Security Operations; Terrorist Acts Demonstrate Urgent need to Improve Security at the Nations' Airports Operations; Weaknesses in Airport Security and Options for Assigning Screening Responsibilities; Vulnerabilities and Potential Improvements for the Air Cargo System; Transportation Security Administration Faces Immediate and Long-Term Challenges; Registered Traveller Program Policy and Implementation Issues; Index.
A major goal of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and now the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), is the development of technologies for detecting explosives and illegal drugs in freight cargo and passenger luggage. One such technology is pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA). This technology is based on detection of signature radiation (gamma rays) induced in material scanned by a beam of neutrons. While PFNA may have the potential to meet TSA goals, it has many limitations. Because of these issues, the government asked the National Research Council to evaluate the potential of PFNA for airport use and compare it with current and future x-ray technology. The results of this survey are presented in "Assessment of the Practicality of Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis for Aviation Security." A broad range of detection methods and test results are covered in this report. Tests conducted as of October 2000 showed that the PFNA system was unable to meet the stringent federal aviation requirements for explosive detection in air cargo containers. PFNA systems did, however, demonstrate some superior characteristics compared to existing x-ray systems in detecting explosives in cargo containers, though neither system performed entirely satisfactorily. Substantial improvements are needed in the PFNA detection algorithms to allow it to meet aviation detection standards for explosives in cargo and passenger baggage. The PFNA system currently requires a long scan time (an average of 90 minutes per container in the prototype testing in October 2000), needs considerable radiation shielding, is significantly larger than current x-ray systems, and has high implementation costs. These factors are likely to limit installation at airports, even if the detection capability is improved. Nevertheless, because PFNA has the best potential of any known technology for detecting explosives in cargo and luggage, this book discusses how continued research to improve detection capabilities and system design can best be applied for the airport environment.
The security of the U.S. commercial aviation system has been a growing concern since the 1970's when the hijacking of aircraft became a serious problem. Over that period, federal aviation officials have been searching for more effective ways for non-invasive screening of passengers, luggage, and cargo to detect concealed explosives and weapons. To assist in this effort, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) asked the NRC for a study of emerging screening technologies. This book - the fourth of four - focuses on data fusion as a means to significantly improve the ability of the existing suite of airport detection systems and access control systems to detect and prevent attacks. The book presents a discussion of the data fusion, an analysis of current data fusion efforts, and an assessment of data fusion opportunities for various airport security activities.
On November 19, 2001 the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was created as a separate entity within the U.S. Department of Transportation through the Aviation and Transportation Security Act. The act also mandated that all checked baggage on U.S. flights be scanned by explosive detection systems (EDSs) for the presence of threats. These systems needed to be deployed quickly and universally, but could not be made available everywhere. As a result the TSA emphasized the procurement and installation of certified systems where EDSs were not yet available. Computer tomography (CT)-based systems became the certified method or place-holder for EDSs. CT systems cannot detect explosives but instead create images of potential threats that can be compared to criteria to determine if they are real threats. The TSA has placed a great emphasis on high level detections in order to slow false negatives or missed detections. As a result there is abundance in false positives or false alarms. In order to get a better handle on these false positives the National Research Council (NRC) was asked to examine the technology of current aviation-security EDSs and false positives produced by this equipment. The ad hoc committee assigned to this task examined and evaluated the cases of false positives in the EDSs, assessed the impact of false positive resolution on personnel and resource allocation, and made recommendations on investigating false positives without increase false negatives. To complete their task the committee held four meetings in which they observed security measures at the San Francisco International Airport, heard from employees of DHS and the TSA. Engineering Aviation Security Environments-Reduction of False Alarms in Computed Tomography-Based Screening of Checked Baggage is the result of the committee's investigation. The report includes key conclusions and findings, an overview of EDSs, and recommendations made by the committee.
The response of the U.S. federal government to the events of September 11, 2001 has reflected the challenge of striking a balance between implementing security measures to deter terrorist attacks while at the same time limiting disruption to air commerce. Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global Terrorism is a comprehensive reference that examines the persistent threats to aviation security that led up to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, describes subsequent terror plots against aviation assets, and explores U.S. efforts to counter and mitigate these threats. Addressing the homeland security challenges facing the U.S. in the age of terrorism, this text explores: Security protocol prior to 9/11 Precursors to 9/11 The rising threat of Al Qaeda Tactical and congressional response to 9/11, including new legislation The broader context of risk assessment Intelligence gathering Airport security, including passenger, baggage, and employee screening Airline in-flight security measures Airport perimeter security The threat of shoulder-fired missiles Security for GA (general aviation) operations and airports Beginning with a historical backdrop describing the dawn of the age of global terrorism in the 1960s and continuing up until the present time, the book demonstrates the broad social and political context underlying recent changes in the aviation security system as a direct result of the 9/11 attacks. Coverage examines ongoing threats and vulnerabilities to the aviation infrastructure, including an exploration of how past terrorist incidents have come to shape U.S. policy and strategy.
Protection of the traveling public from terrorist threats involving explosives is a major goal of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA). For 20 years, the TSA (and the Federal Aviation Administration before it) have been investing in technologies to meet that goal. To support that activity, the TSA has asked the NRC to assess a variety of technological opportunities for offering such protection. The NRC is approaching this assignment by issuing a series of reports on chosen technology applications. This is the first of that series and presents an assessment of mass spectrometry for enhanced trace detection (ETD) of chemicals contained in explosives. The report describes limitations of trace detection in general and the current technologies in particular. It then presents a discussion of the potential for mass spectrometry to improve EDT including challenges faced by such a system, recommendations for starting a program to take advantage of mass spectrometry, and recommendations for a phased implementation plan.
The security of the U.S. commercial aviation system has been a growing concern since the 1970's when the hijacking of aircraft became a serious problem. Over that period, federal aviation officials have been searching for more effective ways for non-invasive screening of passengers, luggage, and cargo to detect concealed explosives and weapons. To assist in this effort, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) asked the NRC for a study of emerging screening technologies. This report-the third of four-focuses on currently maturing millimeter-wavelength/terahertz imaging and spectroscopy technologies that offer promise in meeting aviation security requirements. The report provides a description of the basic operation of these imaging systems, an assessment of their component technologies, an analysis of various system concepts, and an implementation strategy for deployment of millimeter-wavelength/terahertz technology screening systems.
Safety, Reliability, Risk and Life-Cycle Performance of Structures and Infrastructures contains the plenary lectures and papers presented at the 11th International Conference on STRUCTURAL SAFETY AND RELIABILITY (ICOSSAR2013, New York, NY, USA, 16-20 June 2013), and covers major aspects of safety, reliability, risk and life-cycle performance of str