The European Union (EU) has emerged as a leading governing body in the international struggle to govern climate change. The transformation that has occurred in its policies and institutions has profoundly affected climate change politics at the international level and within its 27 Member States. But how has this been achieved when the EU comprises so many levels of governance, when political leadership in Europe is so dispersed and the policy choices are especially difficult? Drawing on a variety of detailed case studies spanning the interlinked challenges of mitigation and adaptation, this volume offers an unrivalled account of how different actors wrestled with the complex governance dilemmas associated with climate policy making. Opening up the EU's inner workings to non-specialists, it provides a perspective on the way that the EU governs, as well as exploring its ability to maintain a leading position in international climate change politics.
Climate change has taken centre stage in Eurpean and international politics. The fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), released in 2007, confirmedthat climate change is on eof the most serious threats to international security and the well-being of human kind. At the European level, climate change has become a major agenda item regularly discussed by the European Council. Internationally, the issue has become one of "high politics". Since 2005, it has been a top priority of the G-8 Summits, and both the UN Security Council and the UN General Assembly have placed it high on their agendas. World leaders are rallying to achieve a new global deal to combat global warming under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Overall, there is hardly any high-level political encounter in which the issue is not discussed. The European Union as established itself as the most ptrominent international leader on the issue. It has been one of the most fervent supporters of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, striving to sustain its leadership in the efforts to reach a new global agreement post-2012. The EU has also increasingly underpinned its international leadership position with domestic action. Most prominently, it introduced a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in 2005. The Period 2007-2008 saw a major overhaul and leap forward in the development of a renewed EU framework of policy and legislation to address climate change. Most importantly, the new EU climate policies include a set of legislative acts adopted in early 2009 and known as the "climate and energy package" that is designed to acheve the EU's target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and increasing the share of renewable energies to 20% by 2020. This volume provides a timely overview and assessment of the development of the new EU climate policies with a focus on the new climate and energy package. Are EU climate policies sufficient to meet the environmental, economic and political challenge posed by global climate change? How do international and domestic climate poliies of the EU intereact and are they mutually supportive? What are the prospects for the EU keeping its international leadership in the face of a more engaged US and increasingly assertive emerging economies? In addressing these questions, the volume aims to enhance understanding and contribute to further discussions on the current and potential reole of the EU in the fight against climate change.
This volume examines case studies on EU countries' policy to combat climate change, examining the constraints of and opportunities for the implementation of climate change strategies in these countries. The introductory section provides an overview of the climate change problem and its potential effects, examining the roles of different greenhouse gases, the main emission sources, the likely consequences of climate change and the scope for abatement and adapation. The second part consists of six detailed case studies on diverse national strategies. The book concludes with a comparative analysis of the findings of the case studies, and suggestions for approaches to implement emission reduction strategies.
. . . this excellent edited collection assembled by Peeters and Deketelaere on the achievements of EU climate change policy is a very timely publication. They have brought together nineteen distinguished, mostly European scholars, on climate law and policy to provide an informative account of the flurry of initiatives. Benjamin J. Richardson, Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law This book explores the current policy measures adopted by the EU in order to realize its Kyoto Protocol commitment and to prepare for further emission reductions after 2012. EU Climate Change Policy focuses on legal instruments, with emissions trading at the forefront of the policy package, accompanied by directives on energy taxation, energy efficiency and renewable energy. Distinguished authors provide a commentary on each aspect of the policy measures, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects. Overall, it is concluded that whilst EU policy is very green , it needs to be developed further in a comprehensive and meaningful way. With discussions on the current state of affairs of EU climate change policy, and on the issues that may shape its future agenda, this book will be of great interest to academics, civil servants, students and stakeholders.
Climate change poses one of the biggest challenges facing humankind. The European Union (EU) has developed into a leader in international climate change politics although it was originally set up as a ‘leaderless Europe’ in which decision-making powers are spread amongst EU institutional, member state and societal actors. The central aim of this book, which is written by leading experts in the field, is to explain what kind of leadership has been offered by EU institutional, member state and societal actors. Although leadership is the overarching theme of the book, all chapters also address ecological modernisation, policy instruments, and multi-level governance as additional main themes. The book chapters focus on the Commission, European Parliament, European Council and Council of Ministers as well as member states (Britain, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain) and societal actors (businesses and environmental NGOs). Additional chapters analyse the EU as a global actor and the climate change policies of America and China and how they have responded to the EU’s ambitions. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of environmental politics, EU politics, comparative politics and international relations as well as to practitioners who deal with EU and/or climate change issues.
The EU has been the region of the world where the most climate policies have been implemented, and where practical policy experimentation in the field of the environment and climate change has been taking place at a rapid pace over the last twenty-five years. This has led to considerable success in reducing pollution, decoupling emissions from economic growth and fostering global technological leadership. The objective of the book is to explain the EU's climate policies in an accessible way, to demonstrate the step-by-step approach that has been used to develop these policies, and the ways in which they have been tested and further improved in the light of experience. The book shows that there is no single policy instrument that can bring down greenhouse gas emissions, but the challenge has been to put a jigsaw of policy instruments together that is coherent, delivers emissions reductions, and is cost-effective. The book differs from existing books by the fact it covers the EU's emissions trading system, the energy sector and other economic sectors, including their development in the context of international climate policy. Set against the backdrop of the 2015 UN Climate Change conference in Paris, this accessible book will be of great relevance to students, scholars and policy makers alike.
This volume presents a critical analysis of transatlantic relations in the field of environmental governance and climate change. The work focuses on understanding the possible trends in the evolution of global environmental governance and the prospects for breaking the current impasse on climate action. Drawing on research involving experts from eleven different universities and institutes, the authors provide innovative analyses on policy measures taken by the EU and the US, the world’s largest economic and commercial blocs, in a number of fields, ranging from general attitudes on environmental leadership with regard to climate change, to energy policies, new technologies for hydrocarbons extraction and carbon capture, as well as the effects of extreme weather events on climate-related political attitudes. The book examines the way in which the current attitudes of the EU and the US with regard to climate change will affect international cooperation and the building of consensus on possible climate policies, and looks to the future for international environmental governance, arguably one of the most pressing concerns of civilisation today. This book, which is based on research carried out in the context of the EU-financed FP7 research project TRANSWORLD, will appeal to academics, policy makers and practitioners seeking a deeper understanding of the challenges resulting from climate change.
This book is likely to become the definitive study on European global climate change politics. Its focus on the formulation, ratification, and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol within Europe make it essential reading for all who wish to understand how domestic foreign policy influenced the European Union s decision to ratify the Kyoto Protocol despite the United States decision to abandon the agreement. The book provides important historical background, case studies of the most influential European countries to shape the Kyoto Protocol, and an assessment of what enlargement means for the implementation of the agreement. It also examines how Europe s policies have shaped and been shaped by participation in the Kyoto negotiation and implementation processes. It will be an important item for the libraries of any institution or scholar with an interest in the role of Europe in addressing climate change. Miranda Schreurs, University of Maryland, US The core objective of this book is to better understand the role of foreign policy the crossovers and interactions between domestic and international politics and policies in efforts to preserve the environment and natural resources. Underlying this objective is the belief that it is not enough to analyze domestic or international political actors, institutions and processes by themselves. We need to understand the interactions among them, something that explicit thought about foreign policy can help us do. The eclectic group of contributors explore European and EU responses to global climate change, and provide insights into issues on environmental protection, sustainable development, international affairs and foreign policy.
Several hundred directives on environmental policy have been produced by the European Union. What impact has the output of the 'legislative factory' had? After considering how decisions on environmental policy in the EU are made, and the balance of power between business and environmental interests, this book draws on the specialist expertise of the authors to look in depth at the areas of global warming, water pollution and air pollution.