Surveillance has a long-standing relationship with crime and its identification, prevention, detection and punishment. With information on each citizen spanning up to 700 databases, and over 4 million CCTV cameras in the United Kingdom alone, this book explores how new technologies have given rise to new forms of monitoring and control. Offering a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between surveillance, crime and criminal justice, this book explores: the development of surveillance technologies within a broad historical context how new surveillance technologies are shaped by existing social relations, political practices, cultural traditions and organizational contexts the implications of the use of surveillance in responding to crime (including biometrics, DNA samples and electronic monitoring) how 'new' surveillance technologies reinforce 'old' social divisions - particularly along the lines of class, race, gender and age. The book draws upon theoretical debates from a range of disciplines to shed light on this topical subject. Engaging and authoritative, this is an important read for advanced students and academics in criminology, criminal justice, social policy and sociology. The Key Approaches to Criminology series celebrates the removal of traditional barriers between disciplines and, specifically, reflects criminology’s interdisciplinary nature and focus. It brings together some of the leading scholars working at the intersections of criminology and related subjects. Each book in the series helps readers to make intellectual connections between criminology and other discourses, and to understand the importance of studying crime and criminal justice within the context of broader debates. The series is intended to have appeal across the entire range of undergraduate and postgraduate studies and beyond, comprising books which offer introductions to the fields as well as advancing ideas and knowledge in their subject areas.
Although the details of tax law are literally endless—differing not only from jurisdiction to jurisdiction but also from day-to-day—structures and patterns exist across tax systems that can be understood with relative ease. This book, now in an updated new edition, focuses on these essential patterns. It provides an immensely useful introduction to the core common knowledge that any well-informed tax lawyer or policy maker should have about comparative tax law in our times. The busy reader will welcome the compact nature of this work, which is shorter than the first edition and can be read in a weekend if one skips footnotes. The authors elucidate the commonalities and differences across countries in areas including (much of the detail new to the second edition): • general anti-avoidance rules; • court decisions striking down tax laws as violating constitutional rules against retroactivity, unequal treatment of equals, confiscation, and undue vagueness; • statutory interpretation; • inflation adjustment rules and the allowance for corporate equity; • value added tax systems; • concepts such as “tax”, “capital gain”, “tax avoidance”, and “partnership”; • corporate-shareholder tax systems; • the relationship between tax and financial accounting; • taxation of investment income; • tax authorities’ ability to obtain and process information about taxpayers; and • systems of appeals from tax assessments. The information and analysis pull together valuable material which is scattered over a disparate literature, much of it not available in English. Especially considering the dynamic nature of tax law, whose rate of change exceeds that of any other field of law, the authors’ clear identification of the underlying patterns and fundamental structures that all tax systems have in common—as well as where the differences lie—guides the reader and offers resources for further research.
Cities around the globe struggle to create better and more equitable access to important destinations and services, all the while reducing the energy consumption and environmental impacts of mobility. An Introduction to Sustainable Transportation illustrates a new planning paradigm for sustainable transportation through case studies from around the world with hundreds of valuable resources and references, color photos, graphics and tables. The second edition builds and expands upon the highly acclaimed first edition, with new chapters on urban design and urban, regional and intercity public transportation, as well as expanded chapters on automobile dependence and equity issues; automobile cities and the car culture; the history of sustainable and unsustainable transportation; the interrelatedness of technologies, infrastructure energy and functionalities; and public policy and public participation and exemplary places, people and programs around the globe. Among the many valuable additions are discussions of autonomous vehicles (AVs), electric vehicles (EVs), airport cities, urban fabrics, urban heat island effects and mobility as a service (MaaS). New case studies show global exemplars of sustainable transportation, including several from Asia, a case study of participative and deliberative public involvement, as well as one describing life in the Vauban ecologically planned community of Freiburg, Germany. Students in affiliated sustainability disciplines, planners, policymakers and concerned citizens will find many provides practical techniques to innovate and transform transportation.
You Spend It. You Save It. You Never Have Enough of It. But how does money actually work? Understanding cash, currencies and the financial system is vital for making sense of what is going on in our world, especially now. Since the 2008 financial crisis, money has rarely been out of the headlines. Central banks have launched extraordinary policies, like quantitative easing or negative interest rates. New means of payment, like Bitcoin and Apple Pay, are changing how we interact with money and how governments and corporations keep track of our spending. Radical politicians in the US and UK are urging us to transform our financial system and make it the servant of social justice. And yet, if you stopped for a moment and asked yourself whether you really understand how it works, would you honestly be able to say 'yes'? In Money in One Lesson, Gavin Jackson, a lead writer for the Financial Times, specialising in economics, business and public policy, answers the most important questions to clarify for the reader what money is and how it shapes our societies. With brilliant storytelling, Jackson provides a basic understanding of the most important element of our everyday lives. Drawing on stories like the 1970s Irish Banking Strike to show what money actually is, and the Great Inflation of West Africa's cowrie shell money to explain how it keeps its value, Money in One Lesson demystifies the world of finance and explains how societies, both past and present, are forever entwined with monetary matters.
Personally researched by a longtime resident, Costa Rica For Dummies covers all the highlights of this fast-changing country, with recommended accommodations in every price category. Insightful commentary and opinionated reviews. Details on San Jose and the Central Valley; the Guanacaste area, Costa Rica’s “Gold Coast”; the Manuel Antonio area, the most popular ecotourism destination; the Monteverde area with its misty cloud forests; and the rest of the country Adventures to suit all ages and abilities: swooping from treetop platform to treetop platform on a canopy tour, taking a dip in a jungle swimming hole, or spotting playful spider monkeys as you hike through lush foliage.
Housing is increasingly unaffordable in many parts of the UK, with prices and rents rising much faster than earnings because, over many decades, far too few homes have been built. Since the 2008 financial crisis, the homes shortage has become more acute – sending housing affordability to the top of the political agenda. Combining analysis with reportage, Home Truths draws on extensive interviews with cabinet ministers, civil servants, planning officials, leading property executives and priced-out homebuyers from across the country. Informed by deep economic research and political access at the highest level, the book is a no-holds-barred critique of the UK’s chronic housing shortage, concluding with eye-catching policy proposals of direct relevance to both Parliament and regional and national government.
Defending Assessment Security in a Digital World explores the phenomenon of e-cheating and identifies ways to bolster assessment to ensure that it is secured against threats posed by technology. Taking a multi-disciplinary approach, the book develops the concept of assessment security through research from cybersecurity, game studies, artificial intelligence and surveillance studies. Throughout, there is a rigorous examination of the ways people cheat in different contexts, and the effectiveness of different approaches at stopping cheating. This evidence informs the development of standards and metrics for assessment security, and ways that assessment design can help address e-cheating. Its new concept of assessment security both complements and challenges traditional notions of academic integrity. By focusing on proactive, principles-based approaches, the book equips educators, technologists and policymakers to address both current e-cheating as well as future threats.
Drawing together diverse models and data to present a coherent interdisciplinary view, this complete handbook delivers recommendations in the area of public perception of information and communication technology (ICT) mediated services. This detailed examination not only explores the background, strategies, and business development regarding such themes as internet security, but it also takes a wider approach by covering important related issues such as identity and theft, how citizens can come to trust a society that is driven by e-commerce, and the role of government and providers to find solutions. This ground-breaking manual will allow decision makers, researchers, and industry professionals across the globe to effectively understand the implications of engaging the general public with ICT.