This book presents the challenges of developing countries to understand and manage the risks of extreme natural events. In the seventeen chapters presented, it brings together scientific communities from Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, South Africa, and Venezuela to share their expertise in different aspects of managing extreme natural events, particularly those related to climate. It discusses how adaptation to these extreme natural events must be an integral part of national policy of the developing countries dealing with disaster mitigation and management.
Climate Change and Extreme Events uses a multidisciplinary approach to discuss the relationship between climate change-related weather extremes and their impact on human lives. Topics discussed are grouped into four major sections: weather parameters, hydrological responses, mitigation and adaptation, and governance and policies, with each addressed with regard to past, present and future perspectives. Sections give an overview of weather parameters and hydrological responses, presenting current knowledge and a future outlook on air and stream temperatures, precipitation, storms and hurricanes, flooding, and ecosystem responses to these extremes. Other sections cover extreme weather events and discuss the role of the state in policymaking. This book provides a valuable interdisciplinary resource to climate scientists and meteorologists, environmental researchers, and social scientists interested in extreme weather. Provides an integrated interdisciplinary approach to how climate change impacts the hydrological system Addresses significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of climate change and extreme events Discusses the societal impacts of climate change-related weather extremes, including multilevel governance and adaptation policy
This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report (IPCC-SREX) explores the challenge of understanding and managing the risks of climate extremes to advance climate change adaptation. Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. Changes in the frequency and severity of the physical events affect disaster risk, but so do the spatially diverse and temporally dynamic patterns of exposure and vulnerability. Some types of extreme weather and climate events have increased in frequency or magnitude, but populations and assets at risk have also increased, with consequences for disaster risk. Opportunities for managing risks of weather- and climate-related disasters exist or can be developed at any scale, local to international. Prepared following strict IPCC procedures, SREX is an invaluable assessment for anyone interested in climate extremes, environmental disasters and adaptation to climate change, including policymakers, the private sector and academic researchers.
Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. This Special Report explores the social as well as physical dimensions of weather- and climate-related disasters, considering opportunities for managing risks at local to international scales. SREX was approved and accepted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on 18 November 2011 in Kampala, Uganda.
This book discusses the science, causes, impacts and risk reduction strategies for climate change and disasters. It focuses on the use of traditional knowledge, new innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels in order to promote sustainable development goals in general and disaster risk reduction in particular. The global climate has changed substantially over the last century. There is strong evidence of global climate change in the form of increase in air and sea surface temperature, recession of glaciers, changes and shifting of climate regimes, increasing number of extreme events and sea levels changes. The increasing frequency of climate change induced disasters in particular is posing a threat to resilience, lives and livelihoods at global, regional and local levels. Major ecosystems of the world have experienced several climate induced disaster events in recent past. This book provides new insights into the occurrence and impacts of climatic extremes and strategies for disaster risk reduction. It includes studies on rainfall and temperature trends, floods and drought disasters, weather and climatic related disasters in mountains, changes in plant activities, risk assessment and responses in different ecosystems of the world. The book is particularly useful for environmental and disaster managers, researchers and graduate students, as well as policy makers.
The post-revolutionary economies of MENA - Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Yemen - have been recovering after a period of growth decelerations in 2011. In Egypt and Tunisia, the growth dips of 2011 were less dramatic than the declines observed during previous transitions. The recovery has been relatively quick but the transition process is far from complete and uncertainty about the political and reform process remains a binding constraint to private investment. Consequently, post-transition growth is below potential and is lower than growth prior to the Arab Spring, with negative consequences for employment and poverty. Events in the post-revolution economies have affected other countries in MENA. Macroeconomic fundamentals weakened in most developing MENA countries in 2011-12 as growth slowed and governments responded to social pressures with expansionary fiscal policies. The regional growth outlook for 2013 reflects weaker expected global economic activity, especially in the EU, and moderating oil prices. Regional economic growth is expected to decelerate to 3.5% in 2013 from 5.5% in 2012. Prolonged political and policy uncertainty and social unrest are serious downside risks to the outlook.
The climate change at global level is leading to the alterations in weather and climate extremes. These climate extremes impact severely on both human and ecosystems including economic losses, sectors such as tourism, agriculture, urban settlements and small island states, etc. Scientists predict that the frequency and intensity of these disasters are likely to increase as a result of the effects of climate change. Their susceptibility is principally based on the geographical, geological and socio-economic characteristics. During the last few decades many countries in Asia and Africa encountered unforeseen natural disasters apparently due to both the climate change and deficiencies of the built environment. It seems that in the last five years such calamities have been accelerated such as Monsoon flooding in Bangladesh; Hurricane Irma in USA and Caribbean; floods in different regions of India, mudslide in Colombia and earthquakes in Mexico and Iran. These high-profile mega-disasters are raising global awareness of the need to build the capacity of national governments, civil society organizations and international entities to prevent, respond to and recover from natural disasters. In order to discuss the above issues, the Centre for Science and Technology of the Non-Aligned and Other Developing Countries (NAM S&T Centre) organized an international round table on 'Impacts of Extreme Natural Events: Science and Technology for Mitigation (IRENE)' in Colombo, Sri Lanka during 13-15 December 2017, which brought the scientists, experts and professionals engaged in R&D, policy making and implementation, social activists and other stake holders to a common forum for sharing views and experiences for the development of a road map for reducing the risks in real situations. This book comprises twenty-four papers from the researchers and professionals of 12 countries. The papers in this book have been categorised in four sections, namely, National Experiences, Regional Cooperation and South-South Relations, International Organisations and Networking and Theoretical Frameworks. The book is expected to be of great value to the immense use to all those associated with issues related to mitigation of mega-disasters due to extreme natural events, from researchers to policy makers, non-government organisations and government officials in the developing and other countries.
Agricultural production is highly sensitive to weather and climate-related disasters such as drought, storm and flood. While it is not possible to prevent the occurrence of natural disasters, the resultant disastrous effects can be reduced mitigated through proper planning and effective preparation. This book, based on a gathering of experts in Beijing, discusses ways to reduce the vulnerability of agriculture to disaster and extreme events, both by accurate and timely warning, and by impact-reducing countermeasures.
Climate change knows no boundaries and its cost must be borne by all earthlings. While the technologically advanced and developed countries are better prepared for responding to climate change, it is the developing countries that are the most vulnerable to climate change impacts because they have fewer resources to adapt politically, socially, technologically and financially. Climate change is, thus, a matter of moral and cultural ethics. Climate change adaptation methods need to accommodate traditional environmental knowledge and practices of different indigenous cultures. This book explores the ability to concerted global action and mechanisms to enable developing countries to adapt to the effects of climate change that are happening now and which will worsen in the future.
This volume aims to develop a framework for disaster and climate risk resilient livelihood system in Bangladesh using a policy oriented approach. It highlights the possible impacts of climate change on groundwater based irrigation in the country. Climate change is one of biggest challenges to society. It can lead to serious impacts on production, life and environment on a global scale. Higher temperatures and sea level rise will cause flooding and water salinity problems which will bring about negative effects on agriculture and high risks to industry and socio-economic systems in the future. Climate change will lead to many changes in global development and security especially energy, water, food, society, job, diplomacy, culture, economy and trade. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines climate change as: “Any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.” Global climate change has emerged as a key issue in both political and economic arenas. It is an increasingly questioned phenomenon, and progressive national governments around the world have started taking action to respond to these environmental concerns.