Soil quality is the capacity of a specific kind of soil to function within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries to: ? sustain plant and animal productivity ? maintain or enhance water and air quality ? support human health and habitation Soil function describes what the soil does. Soil functions are: (1) sustaining biological activity, diversity, and productivity; (2) regulating and partitioning water and solute flow; (3) filtering and buffering, degrading, immobilizing, and detoxifying organic and inorganic materials, including industrial and municipal by-products and atmospheric deposition; (4) storing and cycling nutrients and other elements within the earth
Human well-being depends in many ways on maintaining the stock of natural resources which deliver the services from which human’s benefit. However, these resources and flows of services are increasingly threatened by unsustainable and competing land uses. Particular threats exist to those public goods whose values are not well-represented in markets or whose deterioration will only affect future generations. As market forces alone are not sufficient, effective means for local and regional planning are needed in order to safeguard scarce natural resources, coordinate land uses and create sustainable landscape structures. This book argues that a solution to such challenges in Europe can be found by merging the landscape planning tradition with ecosystem services concepts. Landscape planning has strengths in recognition of public benefits and implementation mechanisms, while the ecosystem services approach makes the connection between the status of natural assets and human well-being more explicit. It can also provide an economic perspective, focused on individual preferences and benefits, which helps validate the acceptability of environmental planning goals. Thus linking landscape planning and ecosystem services provides a two-way benefit, creating a usable science to meet the needs of local and regional decision making. The book is structured around the Driving forces-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses framework, providing an introduction to relevant concepts, methodologies and techniques. It presents a new, ecosystem services-informed, approach to landscape planning that constitutes both a framework and toolbox for students and practitioners to address the environmental and landscape challenges of 21st century Europe.
In-depth treatments of the soil quality concept, its history, and its applicability in research and in developed and developing societiesAll 18 chapters are written by well-established experts from Europe, North America and AustraliaSoil quality is a concept that allows soil functions to be related to specific purposes. Managing soil quality takes a management oriented approach by identifying key issues in soil quality and management options to enhance the sustainability of modern agriculture. Topics covered include major plant nutrients (N, P, K), soil acidity, soil organic matter, soil biodiversity, soil compaction, erosion, pesticides and urban waste.
Forages: The Science of Grassland Agriculture, 7th Edition, Volume II will extensively evaluate the current knowledge and information on forage agriculture. Chapters written by leading researchers and authorities in grassland agriculture are aggregated under section themes, each one representing a major topic within grassland science and agriculture. This 7th edition will include two new additional chapters covering all aspects of forage physiology in three separate chapters, instead of one in previous editions. Chapters will be updated throughout to include new information that has developed since the last edition. This new edition of the classic reference serves as a comprehensive supplement to An Introduction to Grassland Agriculture, Volume I.
Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Soil and Water Management discusses the latest approaches for monitoring soil and water degradation in coastal regions under current climate conditions as well as potential further changes in the future. It presents an overview of climate change impacts on soil and water resources and summarizes the adaptation of practical options and strategies to minimize the potential risks, such as land degradation, seawater intrusion, droughts, ocean acidification, etc. The book aims to promote the adoption of best practices, which can be selected and implemented according to the respective local conditions. In addition, the recommendations for specific soil and water use planning strategies to address climate change can also be incorporated into national and international development plans. Features: • Presents the general properties and analysis of soil and water resource conditions for coastal regions • Offers practical advice for adapting to climate change through case studies from diverse coastal settings around the globe • Presents information in an accessible format for practitioners in soil and water sciences, as well as for those working in related disciplines • Includes end-of-chapter summaries and homework problems Written primarily for practicing soil, water, agricultural, and environmental scientists, this book provides the latest research on soil and water resources management, soil processes and properties, and the related effects of climate change. It assesses the effectiveness of the methods currently in use and under future climate change scenarios as well.
Ecological intensification involves using natural resources such as land, water, soil nutrients, and other biotic and abiotic variables in a sustainable way to achieve high performance and efficiency in agricultural yield with minimal damage to the agroecosystems. With increasing food demand there is high pressure on agricultural systems. The concept of ecological intensification presents the mechanisms of ensuring high agricultural productivity by restoration the soil health and landscape ecosystem services. The approach involves the replacement of anthropogenic inputs with eco-friendly and sustainable alternates. Effective ecological intensification requires an understanding of ecosystems services, ecosystem's components, and flow of resources in the agroecosystems. Also, awareness of land use patterns, socio-economic factors, and needs of the farmer community plays a crucial role. It is therefore essential to understand the interaction of ecosystem constituents within the extensive agricultural landscape. The editors critically examined the status of ecological stress in agroecosystems and address the issue of ecological intensification for natural resources management. Drawing upon research and examples from around the world, the book is offering an up-to-date account, and insight into the approaches that can be put in practice for poly-cropping systems and landscape-scale management to increase the stability of agricultural production systems to achieve ‘Ecological resilience’. It further discusses the role of farmer communities and the importance of their awareness about the issues. This book will be of interest to teachers, researchers, climate change scientists, capacity builders, and policymakers. Also, the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of agriculture, forestry, ecology, agronomy, soil science, and environmental sciences. National and international agricultural scientists, policymakers will also find this to be a useful read for green future.
Published in two volumes, this new book, Advances in Sustainable Development and Management of Environmental and Natural Resources: Economic Outlook and Opinions, addresses the varied aspect of natural resources and their management in conjunction with socioeconomic aspects. With chapters from authors from around the world, this volume features 24 chapters that cover many aspects of the sustainable utilization of management of natural resources and provides new insight into the nexus of ecology and economy and their application in various fields of science. The chapters include case studies and research from India, Africa, South America, and elsewhere. After first laying the foundation, the volume goes on to discuss sustainable development and natural resource management from an economics point of view. Chapters address myriad issues involved in natural resources and environmental management, including soil and water resources management in arid lands, resource management for agricultural purposes, contemporary global legal norms of environment and sustainable development, how emissions factor into regional economies, mitigation of the impact of climate change through sustainable practices, rainwater harvesting technology, and much more. The chapters include case studies that discuss soil, agroforestry, agriculture, wetlands, and floral diversity. The book provides a solid foundation for a realistic perspective of the role of sustainable development and management of natural resources while taking the socioeconomic impact into consideration as well. It will be a valuable resource and reference for the study of ecology, economics, sustainable development, natural resource management, and other allied fields.
The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook expands on the first edition to include advances made in the last four decades, bringing the topic completely up to date. The book addresses critical issues such as whether humanity can feed itself, and whether it can do so in environmentally sound and sustainable ways. Written from agronomic, environmental, and ecological standpoints, the textbook employs a multidisciplinary approach, including policymaking and plant genetic improvements, as well as ecosystem services, climate change, biodiversity, sustainability and resilience. New chapters in this second edition focus on organic carbon in soil, soil biology, soils in relation to livestock production and forestry, and agroforestry. The new edition will again be the go-to textbook for courses on tropical soils, and a reference textbook for soil and agricultural scientists and development professionals working in the tropics.
Natural processes and human activities alter the properties and quality of soils over time. Nowadays, the growing interest in soil protection prompts abundant research to estimate soil quality in wide-ranging environmental scenarios. The assessment of soil quality entails the evaluation of the capability of a soil to perform its functions in present scenarios but also how those functions can be preserved for future land use. Currently, soil processes, physical, chemical, and biological properties are recognized as indicators to estimate soil quality. Soil processes and current trends in quality assessment provides a wide depiction of current research conducted in soil quality assessment, encompassing general studies on soil processes, evaluation of significant indicators of soil quality such as soil organic matter dynamic and soil-plant interaction, while presenting diverse strategies for soil fitness amelioration.
Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals: Biofuels: Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes for the Production of Liquid and Gaseous Biofuels, Second Edition, provides general information, basic data and knowledge on one of the most promising renewable energy sources—liquid and gaseous biofuels—and their production and application. The book delineates green technologies for abating environmental crisis and enabling the transformation into a sustainable future. It provides date-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative technology on biofuels, as well as the process scale-up and commercialization of various liquid and gaseous biofuels, detailing the functional mechanisms involved, various operational configurations, influencing factors and integration strategies. All chapters have been updated, with new chapters covering topics of current interest, including sustainability and biohydrogen. Presents a holistic view of biofuels in research, operation, scale-up and application Widens the scope of the existing technologies, providing state-of-the-art information and knowledge Provides strategic integrations of various bioprocesses that are essential in establishing a circular biorefinery Contains interdisciplinary knowledge on the environment, molecular biology, engineering, biotechnology, microbiology and economic aspects Integrates various subjects, including biotechnology, bioengineering, molecular biology, environmental science, sustainability science and chemical engineering
This new book presents an abundance of important information and case studies that deal with bamboo farming and its effects from and on climate change adaptation and mitigation. There is a lack of research on the role of bamboo in climate change adaptation and mitigation; this volume helps to fill that gap by providing information that will enable policymakers to consider bamboo farming and its implications in carbon trading. Bamboo represents one of the world’s highest yielding renewable natural resources and is an important source of non-timber forest products for subsistence use as well as for materials with many commercial and industrial uses. There are over 1500 documented applications of bamboo products, including materials for bridges, construction, furniture, agricultural tools, handicrafts, papers, textiles, boards, edible, and bioenergy applications. With their fast growth rate and rapid propagation, bamboo forests have a high C storage potential, especially when the harvested culms are transformed into durable products and thereby prolonging the C storage. Environmentalists love bamboo for its quick growth and for the fact that it can be harvested without harming the environment. This volume is a rich resource on the role of bamboo in ecological farming and climate change mitigation. Key features of the book include: • Explores the role of bamboo on climate change and environment and ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change • Considers overlooked bamboo biomass resources • Explains carbon capture and storage potential in bamboo • Assesses opportunities for carbon farming and carbon trading in bamboo • Looks at the role on bamboo cultivation on the livelihood of rural populations • Details the soil properties needed for bamboo-based agroforestry systems