The first edition of this book covered the basic treatment of the enzyme reaction using the overall reaction kinetics and stopped-flow method, the general properties of protein and cofactors, the control of enzyme reaction, and the preparation of enzyme protein. These topics are the basis of enzyme research and thus suitable for the beginner in the field. The second edition presents the cofactors produced via the post-translational modification of the enzyme’s active site. These cofactors expand the function of enzymes and open a new research field. The carbonyl reagent phenylhydrazine and related compounds have been useful in finding some of the newly discovered cofactors and thus have been discussed in this edition. The topic of the control of enzyme activity through the channel of substrates and products in polyfunctional enzymes has also been expanded in this book.
Enzymes are giant macromolecules which catalyse biochemical reactions. They are remarkable in many ways. Their three-dimensional structures are highly complex, yet they are formed by spontaneous folding of a linear polypeptide chain. Their catalytic properties are far more impressive than synthetic catalysts which operate under more extreme conditions. Each enzyme catalyses a single chemical reaction on a particular chemical substrate with very high enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity at rates which approach “catalytic perfection”. Living cells are capable of carrying out a huge repertoire of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, some of which have little or no precedent in organic chemistry. The popular textbook Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry has been thoroughly updated to include information on the most recent advances in our understanding of enzyme action, with additional recent examples from the literature used to illustrate key points. A major new feature is the inclusion of two-colour figures, and the addition of over 40 new figures of the active sites of enzymes discussed in the text, in order to illustrate the interplay between enzyme structure and function. This new edition provides a concise but comprehensive account from the perspective of organic chemistry, what enzymes are, how they work, and how they catalyse many of the major classes of enzymatic reactions, and will continue to prove invaluable to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of organic, bio-organic and medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.
Therapeutic enzymes exhibit fascinating features and opportunities, and represent a significant and promising subcategory of modern biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of several severe diseases. Research and drug developments efforts and the advancements in biotechnology over the past twenty years have greatly assisted the introduction of efficient and safe enzyme-based therapies for a range of both rare and common disorders. The introduction and regulatory approval of twenty different recombinant enzymes has enabled effective enzyme-replacement therapy. This volume aims to overview these therapeutic enzymes, focusing in particular on more recently approved enzymes produced by recombinant DNA technology. This volume is composed of four sections. Section 1 provides an overview of the production process and biochemical characterization of therapeutic enzymes, while Section 2 focuses upon the engineering strategies and delivery methods of therapeutic enzymes. Section 3 highlights the clinical applications of approved therapeutic enzymes, including aspects on their structure, indications and mechanisms of action. Together with information on these mechanisms, safety and immunogenicity issues and various adverse events of the recombinant enzymes used for therapy are discussed. Section 4, provides discussion on the prospective and future developments of new therapeutic enzymes. This book is aimed at academics, researchers and students undertaking advanced undergraduate/postgraduate programs in the biopharmaceutical/biotechnology area who wish to gain a comprehensive understanding of enzyme-based therapeutic molecules.
Leading experts from all over the world present an overview of the use of enzymes in industry for: - the production of bulk products, such as glucose, or fructose - food processing and food analysis - laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents - the textile, pulp and paper and animal feed industries - clinical diagnosis and therapy - genetic engineering. The book also covers identification methods of new enzymes and the optimization of known ones, as well as the regulatory aspects for their use in industrial applications. Up to date and wide in scope, this is a chance for non-specialists to acquaint themselves with this rapidly growing field. '...The quality...is so great that there is no hesitation in recommending it as ideal reading for any student requiring an introduction to enzymes. ...Enzymes in Industry - should command a place in any library, industrial or academic, where it will be frequently used.' The Genetic Engineer and Biotechnologist 'Enzymes in Industry' is an excellent introduction into the field of applied enzymology for the reader who is not familiar with the subject. ... offers a broad overview of the use of enzymes in industrial applications. It is up-to-date and remarkable easy to read, despite the fact that almost 50 different authors contributed. The scientist involved in enzyme work should have this book in his or her library. But it will also be of great value to the marketing expert interested in the present use of enzymes and their future in food and nonfood applications.' Angewandte Chemie 'This book should be available to all of those working with, or aspiring to work with, enzymes. In particular academics should use this volume as a source book to ensure that their 'new' projects will not 'reinvent the wheel'.' Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of enzyme engineering, from fundamental principles through to the state-of-the-art in research and industrial applications. It begins with a brief history, describing the milestones of advancement in enzyme science and technology, before going on to cover the fundamentals of enzyme chemistry, the biosynthesis of enzymes and their production. Enzyme stability and the reaction kinetics during enzymatic reactions are presented to show how enzymes function during catalysis and the factors that affect their activity. Methods to improve enzyme performance are also presented, such as cofactor regeneration and enzyme immobilization. The book emphasizes and elaborates on the performance and characteristics of enzymes at the molecular level. Finally, the book presents recent advances in enzyme engineering and some key industrial application of enzymes addressing the present needs of society. This book presents essential information not only for undergraduate and graduate students, but also for researchers in academia and industry, providing a valuable reference for the development of commercial applications of enzyme technology.
"Microbial enzymes are important because they can be used for a wide variety of industrial purposes. There is dispersed and scanty information available with respect to microbial enzymes and their industrial applications. In this edited book, leading scientists have covered the various aspect of microbial enzymes and their industrial applications. Using microbial enzymes can help expedite various manufacturing processes and contribute to sustainable development, which is a priority worldwide. Research gaps in the entrainment of microbial enzymes with their direct application in product development are a major focus of this volume. Key Features: Cover microbial enzymes with comprehensive and in-depth information. Benefits students by describing recent advancements into microbial enzymology. Provides updates regarding microbial enzymes for researchers and industrial scientists. Includes findings on the microbial actions for better life Related Titles Thatoi, H., et al., eds. Microbial Fermentation and Enzyme Technology (ISBN 978-0-3671-8384-4). Svendsen, A., ed. Understanding Enzymes: Function, Design, Engineering, and Analysis (ISBN 978-9-8146-6932-0). Seneviratne, C. J., ed. Microbial Biofilms: Omics Biology, Antimicrobials and Clinical Applications (ISBN 978-0-3676-5799-4). Suzuki, H. How Enzymes Work: From Structure to Function (ISBN 978-9-8148-0066-2). de Lourdes, M., et al., eds. Fungal Enzymes (ISBN 978-1-4665-9454-8)"--
Manganese in Metabolism and Enzyme Function provides an understanding of the various biological roles of the trace levels of manganese found in mammalian systems. This text discusses the nutritional aspects of manganese in mammals. This book is organized into three sections encompassing 19 chapters. Section I discusses the effects of manganese deficiency, including abnormal pancreatic action and reduced pancreatic manganese in humans and laboratory animals. This text considers the criteria for adding manganese to infant formulas that are commercially available. Section II explores the effects of Mn(II) in protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and other enzymes. The reader is introduced to the electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic probes of manganese function. Other chapters discuss the extrinsic tag technique used to study the bioavailability of trace elements, such as iron and zinc. Finally, Section III examines the biophysical, biochemical, and physiological properties and uses of manganese. Nutritionists, toxicologists, scientists, and researchers will find this book extremely useful.
Enzymes, which work as organic catalysts for chemical reactions, are of interest to a wide range of scientific disciplines. The Source Book of Enzymes provides a worldwide listing of commercially available enzymes, offering the widest possible selection of enzyme products for specific applications. The Source Book of Enzymes answers these important questions and many more: Where can I find a particular enzyme? What enzymes are available for purchase? How do I select the appropriate enzyme for my application? How do the available enzymes differ from one another? What are the reaction conditions for optimum enzyme performance? Who sells the enzyme I need? The reliable research tool you will turn to again and again With the Source Book of Enzymes you will save hours of research time once wasted on searching through catalogs and product data bulletins. This practical reference tool makes the selection process easy by providing systematic and comparative functional information about each enzyme. Its global scope ensures that you will find the enzyme and supplier most suited to your needs and geographical location. Students and educators; researchers in academia, industry and government; bioengineers and biotechnologists, and purchasing agents will find this an invaluable resource for conducting competitive assessments, identifying new product trends and opportunities, identifying enzyme properties, and ordering specific enzymes.
This book focuses on the understanding of enzyme function and optimization gained in the past decade, past enzyme function analysis, enzyme engineering, and growing insights from the simulation work as well and nanotechnology measurement of enzymes in action in vitro or in silico. It presents new insights into the mechanistic function and understanding of enzyme reactions and covers novel structure analysis technologies in conjunction with x-ray and NMR structural methods. The text discusses topics that include single molecules, molecular dynamic simulations of different conformers of enzymes, surface enzyme kinetics, metagenomics and bioinformatics sequence handling, and coupled reactions in nanodevices.
Why is eating food in its natural state, unprocessed and unrefined, so vital to the maintenance of good health? What is lacking in our modern diet that makes us so susceptible to degenerative disease? What natural elements in food may play a key role in unlocking the secrets of life extension? These fascinating questions, and many more, are answered in Enzyme Nutrition. Written by one of America’s pioneering biochemists and nutrition researchers, Dr. Edward Howell, Enzyme Nutrition presents the most vital nutritional discovery since that of vitamins and minerals—food enzymes. Our digestive organs produce some enzymes internally, however food enzymes are necessary for optimal health and must come from uncooked foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, raw sprouted grains, unpasteurized dairy products, and food enzyme supplements. Enzyme Nutrition represents more than fifty years of research and experimentation by Dr. Howell. He shows us how to conserve our enzymes and maintain internal balance. As the body regains its strength and vigor, its capacity to maintain its normal weight, fight disease, and heal itself is enhanced.
Our present concepts ofthe regulation of enzyme activity in the cell have been largely based on the extensive body of work which has been carried out with micro-organisms. A distinction between constitutive and adaptive enzymes had already been made well before World War II and work on enzyme adaptation, both in yeast and bacteria, was done by several workers, especially Marjorie Stephenson and her group in Cambridge in the 1930s. In studies starting about 1947 Stanier demonstrated that the oxidation of aromatic compounds by species of Pseudomonas involved the coordinate and sequential induction of a group of enzymes concerned in the orderly catabolism of a substrate which acted as the inducer. The investigations of Umbarger and of Pardee, both in 1956, established the principle, which is now firmly established for almost all anabolic reaction chains, that the first 'committed' step in a biosynthetic pathway is sensitive to feedback control by the final product of the particular reaction sequence. This control can be exercised in two ways. It can either act on the rate of formation of the enzyme or it can affect the activity of the latter without altering the concentration of the enzyme.
The only definitive resource on enzyme therapy by the nation's leading expert, a pioneering medical doctor who has used enzymes to treat allergies, asthma, fatigue, chronic pain, and many other ailments—with astonishing success! Welcome to the next frontier in healing where natural substances known as enzymes will transform how we view—and combat—disease. Unlike conventional medications, which only mask symptoms, enzyme supplements work at the cellular level to repair and prevent the damage that’s responsible for a host of health problems. And they’re safe, with no known side effects. MicroMiracles is the definitive resource on enzyme therapy. Here you’ll find everything you need to assess your enzyme status and incorporate enzyme supplements into your self-care regimen. Experience their amazing therapeutic benefits for yourself! Eliminate food cravings—and unwanted pounds Replenish energy stores Stimulate immune function Protect against heart disease, cancer, and diabetes Fight inflammation Slow the aging process In MicroMiracles, you’ll also discover how undiagnosed food intolerances may leave you feeling less than your best—and how enzymes support optimum digestion and restore balance to all of your body’s systems. Your payoff is radiant health.