This book describes recent developments in hydrometeorological forecasting techniques for a range of timescales, from short term to seasonal and longer terms. It conveniently brings together both meteorological and hydrological aspects in a single volume.
Water is vital for life. Since the dawn of civilization, much effort has been made to harness sources of fresh water. Recent years have raised global awareness of the need for increasing demand of water worldwide, largely because of growing population, rising standard of living, higher demand for energy, and greater appreciation for environmental quality. As an example, the world population has increased threefold in the past five decades. In order to meet the rising water demand, water resources are being developed by building large dams, reservoirs, barrages and weirs across rivers worldwide. The guiding principle for water resources development has been to ensure adequate supply of water for agriculture, domestic use (including fine drinking water), waste disposal, industries, and energy production, with due attention to maintain the ecosystem functions. This development, however, depends on a holistic, cooperative and scientific approach. The basic inputs in the assessment of water resources for a given region are from hydrological data and the subject of hydrology forms the core in achieving sustainable development of water resources. Barring a few exceptions, hydrological data for most river basins are sparse and therefore it is difficult to comprehensively assess their water resources. The major source of water is rainfall which occurs as a result of condensation of atmospheric moisture governed by the science of meteorology.
Hydrometeorology presents an introduction to relevant topics in the interdisciplinary fields of hydrology and meteorology. This book is one of the few books aiming to provide a balance between aspects of meteorological and hydrological processes. The transfer of energy and water between the land surface and lower atmosphere within the hydrological cycle is addressed followed by a description of the nature of precipitation, and how it is formed. Forecasting precipitation is reviewed on all scales, and the range of rainfall-runoff models and coastal surge models and forecasts (including tsunamis) which have been, and are being, used are discussed. The mechanisms of snow, ice (glacier, sea and tundra), evaporation and transpiration, how drought occurs and the representation of wind are described. How rainfall (including radar measurements) and river flow information is gathered and analysed (including, frequency analysis, Probable Maximum Precipitation and Flood) are presented. Satellite measurements of precipitation are discussed. Examples of major past floods and droughts are given. Past and future climate change, which is included, underpins the importance of hydro-meteorological processes. The structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere and how it influences weather and climate including the Hadley, Ferrel and Polar cells, the Trade winds and the El Nino, is outlined. Finally, the influence of urban areas on rainfall formation, dealing with urban drainage and air quality are described. Each chapter ends with one or two specific points as appendices, elements discussed in the chapter and a list of sample problems to aid understanding. Readership: This book is aimed at 3rd year undergraduate and postgraduate students on hydrology/hydrometeorology, environmental science and geography courses. Professionals in environmental protection agencies and consultancies will also find the book of great interest. It contains a balance of both the physics and mathematics which underpin such courses and activities.
Both hydrologists and meteorologists need to speak a common scientific language, and this has given rise to the new scientific discipline of hydrometeorology, which deals with the transfer of water and energy across the land/atmosphere interface. Terrestrial Hydrometeorology is the first graduate-level text with sufficient breadth and depth to be used in hydrology departments to teach relevant aspects of meteorology, and in meteorological departments to teach relevant aspects of hydrology, and to serve as an introductory text to teach the emerging discipline of hydrometeorology. The book will be essential reading for graduate students studying surface water hydrology, meteorology, and hydrometeorology. It can also be used in advanced undergraduate courses, and will be welcomed by academic and professional hydrologists and meteorologists worldwide. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/shuttleworth/hydrometeorology.
Introduction to Hydrometeorology is the study of the hydrolic cycle, which is the circulation of water from the seas, into the atmosphere, and back to either land or sea. This book describes hydrometeorology or the application of meteorology to problems that pertain to hydrology, and then discusses the approach, through meteorology, to the solution of hydrologic problems. This text outlines observation methods on the subject and discusses the applications of hydrometeorology to problems encountered in the study of river and lake behaviors. Topics include precipitation, melting of ice, streamflows, lakes, evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The frequently used methods in analysis, such as employing statistics to hydrometereological problems, precipitation analysis, and streamflow routing are explained. This text also shows how extending streamflow records can be helpful in predicting the regime or course of a stream in the future. Records of seasonal and annual flow, flood runoff, peak discharge, as well as seasons of low flow and drought become useful tools in estimating the frequency and magnitude of streamflows. After which, the book discusses possible engineering designs in irrigation, storm sewers, and reservoirs. The text looks into the ways how human has influenced the hydrologic cycle through induced precipitation, melting of ice covers, and urbanization. Lastly, some climactic trends and cycles that bring about climate change and water resource development are discussed. This text can be used by students studying hydrology and those with meteorology majors. This book can also be read by meteorologists, environmentalists, and people working in general earth sciences.
This book provides a step-by-step methodology and derivation of deep learning algorithms as Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Convolution Neural Network (CNN), especially for estimating parameters, with back-propagation as well as examples with real datasets of hydrometeorology (e.g. streamflow and temperature) and environmental science (e.g. water quality). Deep learning is known as part of machine learning methodology based on the artificial neural network. Increasing data availability and computing power enhance applications of deep learning to hydrometeorological and environmental fields. However, books that specifically focus on applications to these fields are limited. Most of deep learning books demonstrate theoretical backgrounds and mathematics. However, examples with real data and step-by-step explanations to understand the algorithms in hydrometeorology and environmental science are very rare. This book focuses on the explanation of deep learning techniques and their applications to hydrometeorological and environmental studies with real hydrological and environmental data. This book covers the major deep learning algorithms as Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Convolution Neural Network (CNN) as well as the conventional artificial neural network model.
Introductory technical guidance for civil engineers and environmental engineers interested in application of hydrometeorology to flood management. Here is what is discussed: 1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS AND BACKGROUND, 2. ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES, 3. DERIVATION OF PMS, 4. DISTRIBUTIONS OF PMS.
Author: National Weather Service Modernization Committee
Publisher: National Academies Press
Floods are by far the most devastating of all weather-related hazards in the United States. The National Weather Service (NWS) is charged by Congress to provide river and flood forecasts and warnings to the public to protect life and property and to promote the nation's economic and environmental well-being (such as through support for water resources management). As part of a modernization of its technologies and organizational structure, the NWS is undertaking a thorough updating of its hydrologic products and services and the activities that produce them. The National Weather Service Modernization Committee of the National Research Council undertook a comprehensive assessment of the NWS' plans and progress for the modernization of hydrologic and hydrometeorological operations and services. The committee's conclusions and recommendations and their related analysis and rationale are presented in this report.