Microfabrication is the key technology behind integrated circuits,microsensors, photonic crystals, ink jet printers, solar cells andflat panel displays. Microsystems can be complex, but the basicmicrostructures and processes of microfabrication are fairlysimple. Introduction to Microfabrication shows how the commonmicrofabrication concepts can be applied over and over again tocreate devices with a wide variety of structures andfunctions. Featuring: * A comprehensive presentation of basic fabrication processes * An emphasis on materials and microstructures, rather than devicephysics * In-depth discussion on process integration showing how processes,materials and devices interact * A wealth of examples of both conceptual and real devices Introduction to Microfabrication includes 250 homework problems forstudents to familiarise themselves with micro-scale materials,dimensions, measurements, costs and scaling trends. Both researchand manufacturing topics are covered, with an emphasis on silicon,which is the workhorse of microfabrication. This book will serve as an excellent first text for electricalengineers, chemists, physicists and materials scientists who wishto learn about microstructures and microfabrication techniques,whether in MEMS, microelectronics or emerging applications.
Microfluidics deals with fluids flowing in miniaturized systems, and has practical applications in the pharmaceutical, biomedical and chemical engineering fields. This text provides an introduction to this emerging discipline.
Hands-on researchers review the principles behind successful miniaturization and describe the key techniques for miniaturizing large-scale biochemical and bioanalytical methods for microchip analysis. The authors cover not only the most popular methods for the fabrication of microchips (photolithography, laser ablation, and soft lithography), but also microfluidic techniques for such bioanalytical assays and bioprocesses as DNA analysis, PCR, immunoassays, and cell reactors. Highlights include PCR on a microchip, microscale cell culturing, and the study of cellular processes on a microchip. The protocols offer step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Introductory MEMS: Fabrication and Applications is a practical introduction to MEMS for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Part I introduces the student to the most commonly used MEMS fabrication techniques as well as the MEMS devices produced using these techniques. Part II focuses on MEMS transducers: principles of operation, modeling from first principles, and a detailed look at commercialized MEMS devices, in addition to microfluidics. Multiple field-tested laboratory exercises are included, designed to facilitate student learning about the fundamentals of microfabrication processes. References, suggested reading, review questions, and homework problems are provided at the close of each chapter. Introductory MEMS: Fabrication and Applications is an excellent introduction to the subject, with a tested pedagogical structure and an accessible writing style suitable for students at an advanced undergraduate level across academic disciplines.
Society is approaching and advancing nano- and microtechnology from various angles of science and engineering. The need for further fundamental, applied, and experimental research is matched by the demand for quality references that capture the multidisciplinary and multifaceted nature of the science. Presenting cutting-edge information that is applicable to many fields, Nano- and Micro-Electromechanical Systems: Fundamentals of Nano and Microengineering, Second Edition builds the theoretical foundation for understanding, modeling, controlling, simulating, and designing nano- and microsystems. The book focuses on the fundamentals of nano- and microengineering and nano- and microtechnology. It emphasizes the multidisciplinary principles of NEMS and MEMS and practical applications of the basic theory in engineering practice and technology development. Significantly revised to reflect both fundamental and technological aspects, this second edition introduces the concepts, methods, techniques, and technologies needed to solve a wide variety of problems related to high-performance nano- and microsystems. The book is written in a textbook style and now includes homework problems, examples, and reference lists in every chapter, as well as a separate solutions manual. It is designed to satisfy the growing demands of undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of nano- and microengineering, and to enable them to contribute to the nanotechnology revolution.
Due to the development of microscale fabrication methods, microlenses are being used more and more in many unique applications, such as artificial implementations of compound eyes, optical communications, and labs-on-chips. Liquid microlenses, in particular, represent an important and growing research area yet there are no books devoted to this topic that summarize the research to date. Rectifying this deficiency, Microlenses: Properties, Fabrication and Liquid Lenses examines the recent progress in the emerging field of liquid-based microlenses. After describing how certain problems in optics can be solved by liquid microlenses, the book introduces the physics and fabrication methods involved in microlenses. It also details the facility and equipment requirements for general fabrication methods. The authors then present examples of various microlenses with non-tunable and tunable focal lengths based on different mechanisms, including: Non-tunable microlenses: Ge/SiO2 core/shell nanolenses, glass lenses made by isotropic etching, self-assembled lenses and lens arrays, lenses fabricated by direct photo-induced polymerization, lenses formed by thermally reflowing photoresist, lenses formed from inkjet printing, arrays fabricated through molding processes, and injection-molded plastic lenses Electrically tuned microlenses: liquid crystal-based lenses and liquid lenses driven by electrostatic forces, dielectrophoretic forces, electrowetting, and electrochemical reactions Mechanically tunable microlenses: thin-membrane lenses with varying apertures, pressures, and surface shapes; swellable hydrogel lenses; liquid–liquid interface lenses actuated by environmentally stimuli-responsive hydrogels; and oscillating lens arrays driven by sound waves Horizontal microlenses: two-dimensional polymer lenses, tunable and movable liquid droplets as lenses, hydrodynamically tuned cylindrical lenses, liquid core and liquid cladding lenses, air–liquid interface lenses, and tunable liquid gradient refractive index lenses The book concludes by summarizing the importance of microlenses, shedding light on future microlens work, and exploring related challenges, such as the packaging of systems, effects of gravity, evaporation of liquids, aberrations, and integration with other optical components.
This book provides an interesting snapshot of new research within the fields of flexible and soft devices which use porous carbon-based materials. The increase in demand for soft and flexible electronics, electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems, piezoresistive pressure sensors has promoted the development of new strategies for the synthesis and integration of nanoporous carbon (NPC) into flexible and soft polymers and inorganic textures. The structural properties of such NPC materials combined with their mechanical, conductive and catalytic properties, show promising results for the technology they are designed for, which can be useful solutions in many other disciplines. An in-depth discussion of the use of NPC materials in different energy devices is provided in every chapter, while at the same time the knowledge of the reader on the various applications where these materials can be used will be broadened. This book sheds new light on nanoporous carbon-based materials and will be of great interest to graduate students and professionals working in this field.
A thorough introduction to 3D laser microfabrication technology, leading readers from the fundamentals and theory to its various potent applications, such as the generation of tiny objects or three-dimensional structures within the bulk of transparent materials. The book also presents new theoretical material on dielectric breakdown, allowing a better understanding of the differences between optical damage on surfaces and inside the bulk, as well as a look into the future. Chemists, physicists, materials scientists and engineers will find this a valuable source of interdisciplinary knowledge in the field of laser optics and nanotechnology.
The material presented in this volume is based on a series of lectures presented at an annual short course entitled "Integrated Optics" sponsored by the University of Cali fornia, Santa Barbara, in March of 1973. Each chapter has been authored by the individual lecturing on the particular subject matter con tained in that chapter. The primary intent of this book is to pro vide the students with a written version of the lecture material. The text treats a large variety of the basic structures and analysis techniques currently being employed in the rapidly growing area of technology termed "Integrated Optics." The volume contains both material that has previously been published in scientific journals and material which has not been published elsewhere. Since the field of integrated optics is in a stage of rapid expansion, a complete coverage of all the experimental results is difficult. As a result the emphasis is placed on the funda mental theoretical ideas and experimental results. The editor gratefully acknowledges the con tributing authors and the institutions with which they are associated for their wholehearted cooperation in the preparation of this book. Particular thanks are extended to the Hughes Research Laboratories, a division of the Hughes Aircraft Company.
MEMS technology and applications have grown at a tremendous pace, while structural dimensions have grown smaller and smaller, reaching down even to the molecular level. With this movement have come new types of applications and rapid advances in the technologies and techniques needed to fabricate the increasingly miniature devices that are literally changing our world. A bestseller in its first edition, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition reflects the many developments in methods, materials, and applications that have emerged recently. Renowned author Marc Madou has added exercise sets to each chapter, thus answering the need for a textbook in this field. Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition offers unique, in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials. From the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering, it provides the background, tools, and directions you need to confidently choose fabrication methods and materials for a particular miniaturization problem. New in the Second Edition Revised chapters that reflect the many recent advances in the field Updated and enhanced discussions of topics including DNA arrays, microfluidics, micromolding techniques, and nanotechnology In-depth coverage of bio-MEMs, RF-MEMs, high-temperature, and optical MEMs. Many more links to the Web Problem sets in each chapter
New nanomaterials are leading to a range of emerging dental treatments that utilize more biomimetic materials that more closely duplicate natural tooth structure (or bone, in the case of implants). The use of nanostructures that will work in harmony with the body’s own regenerative processes (eg, to restore tooth structure or alveolar bone) are moving into clinical practice. This book brings together an international team of experts from the fields of nanomaterials, biomedical engineering and dentistry, to cover the new materials and techniques with potential for use intra-orally or extra-orally for the restoration, fixation, replacement, or regeneration of hard and soft tissues in and about the oral cavity and craniofacial region. New dental nanotechnologies include the use of advanced inorganic and organic materials, smart and biomimetic materials, tissue engineering and drug delivery strategies. Book prepared by an interdisciplinary and international group of bio-nanomaterial scientists and dental/oral biomedical researchers Comprehensive professional reference for the subject covering materials fabrication and use of materials for all major diagnostic and therapeutic dental applications – repair,restoration, regeneration, implants and prevention Book focuses in depth on the materials manufacturing processes involved with emphasis on pre-clinical and clinical applications, use and biocompatibility
The Physical Electronics Department of SRI International (formerly Stanford Research Institute) has been pioneering the development of devices fabricated to submicron tolerances for well over 20 years. In 1961, a landmark paper on electron-beam lithography and its associated technologies was published by K. R. Shoulderst (then at SRI), which set the stage for our subsequent efforts in this field. He had the foresight to believe that the building of such small devices was actually within the range of human capabilities. As a result of this initial momentum, our experience in the technologies associated with microfabrication has become remarkably comprehensive, despite the relatively small size of our research activity. We have frequently been asked to deliver seminars or provide reviews on various aspects of micro fabrication. These activities made us aware of the need for a comprehensive overview of the physics of microfabrication. We hope that this book will fill that need.