This volume is based on the ongoing studies on post-Avicennian philosophy in the context of naturalising philosophy and science in Islam from the 12th to the 14th century – a topic that deserves the special attention of historians of Islamic intellectual history. The contributors address the following questions using case studies: What was philosophy all about from the 12th to the 14th century? And how did Muslim scholars react to it during the period under consideration? The present volume approaches complex philosophical topics from different angles and is structured around six main sections: 1. Historical and Social Approaches to Philosophy, 2. Knowing the Unknown, 3. God, Man and the Physical World, 4. Universals, 5. Logic and Intellect, and 6. Anthropomorphism and Incorporealism.
This thematic introduction to classical Islamic philosophy focuses on the most prevalent philosophical debates of the medieval Islamic world and their importance within the history of philosophy. Approaching the topics in a comprehensive and accessible way in this new volume, Luis Xavier Lopez-Farjeat, one of the co-editors of The Routledge Companion to Islamic Philosophy, makes classical Islamic philosophy approachable for both the new and returning student of the history of philosophy, medieval philosophy, the history of ideas, classical Islamic intellectual history, and the history of religion. Providing readers with a complete view of the most hotly contested debates in the Islamic philosophical tradition, Lopez-Farjeat discusses the development of theology (kalām) and philosophy ( falsafa) during the ʿAbbāsid period, including the translation of Aristotle into Arabic, the philosophy and theology of Islamic revelation, logic and philosophy of language, philosophy of natural science, metaphysics, psychology and cognition, and ethics and political philosophy. This volume serves as an indispensable tool for teachers, students, and independent learners aiming to discover the philosophical problems and ideas that defined the classical Islamic world. Key Features • Offers readers a broad, thorough view of the history of Islamic philosophy by using a thematic approach. • Traces the dialogues between philosophers and theologians about important and controversial topics. • Offers both historical descriptions of the key debates in classical Islamic philosophy and current interpretations by contemporary scholars. • Includes extensive lists for further reading at the end of each chapter, directing curious students to the best avenues for further research.
In recent decades, scholars have come to recognize the importance of classical Islamic philosophy both in its own right and in its preservation of and engagement with Western philosophical ideas. At the same time, the period immediately following the so-called classical period has often beenseen as a sort of dark age, in which Islamic thought entered a long period of decline. In this monumental new work, Frank Griffel seeks to overturn this conventional wisdom, arguing that what he calls the "post-classical" period has been unjustly maligned and neglected by previous generations ofscholars.The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam is a comprehensive study of the far-reaching changes that led to a re-shaping of the philosophical discourse in Islam during the twelfth century. Earlier Western scholars thought that Islam's engagement with the tradition of Greek philosophy endedduring that century. More recent analyses suggest that Islamic thinkers instead integrated Greek thought into the genre of rationalist Muslim theology (kalam). Griffel argues that even this view misses a key point. In addition to the integration of Greek ideas into kalam, Muslim theologians pickedup the discourse of philosophy in Islam (falsafa) and began to produce books on philosophy. Books in these two genres, kalam and philosophy, argue for opposing teachings on the nature of God, the world's creation, and on the afterlife - even when written by the same authors. Griffel explains theemergence of a new genre of philosophical books called "hikma," works that stand opposed to Islamic theology and at the same wish to complement it. Offering a detailed history of philosophy in Iraq, Iran, and Central Asia during the twelfth century, together with an analysis of the way philosophywas practiced during this time, Griffel shows how works of falsafa, written by major Muslim theologians such as al-Ghazali developed step-by-step into critical assessments of philosophy that try to improve philosophical teachings, and eventually become fully fledged philosophical summas in the workof Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. Griffel's examination of the different methods of kalam and hikma demonstrate both the coherence and ambiguity of a Muslim post-classical philosopher's oeuvre.A work of extraordinary breadth and depth, The Formation of Post-Classical Philosophy in Islam will be essential reading for anyone interested in the history of Philosophy or the history of Islam.
Tianyi Zhang offers an innovative philosophical reconstruction of Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī’s (d. 1191) Illuminationism, and convincingly reveals its Nominalist and Existential nature by examining its epistemology and metaphysics.
This book is the first bibliographical and methodological work entirely devoted to the modern scholarship on Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī. It includes more than 1000 entries, an introductory essay, annotations, and various indices to help readers navigate the complex field of Rāzī studies.
“Mustafa Akyol telah menulis kisah tentang perjalanan intelektual yang membuka wacana dan akan menjadi pusat perhatian teman-teman Muslimnya, serta menimbulkan harapan bagi kita non-Muslim di seluruh dunia.” —Jack Miles, Penulis Buku God: A Bioraphy dan God in the Qur’an, yang Memenangkan Pulitzer Prize “Lebih dari sekadar pembelaan yang berapi-api terhadap toleransi dan nalar, Reopening Muslim Minds membawa pembaca pada perjalanan yang benar-benar menyenangkan dan mencerahkan melalui teologi dan hukum Islam. Dengan kecerdasan dan kefasihan yang brilian, Mustafa Akyol telah menulis sebuah buku yang kehadiran dan kekuatannya tak terbantahkan. Buku ini harus menjadi bacaan wajib bagi setiap pengkaji Islam dan Dunia Muslim secara serius.” —Khaled Abou El Fadl, Profesor Hukum terkemuka Fakultas Hukum UCLA, Penulis Buku Reasoning with God: Reclaiming Shari'ah in the Modern Age “Buku ini memikat, menarik, dan sangat terpelajar tentang konsekuensi yang ditanggung umat Islam akibat mengesampingkan nalar. Akyol menulis dengan kecerdasan intuitif, empati, cinta, dan harapan.” —Asma Barlas, Profesor Politik Emeritus Ithaca College, Penulis Buku Believing Women in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur’an “Bagi Mustafa Akyol, warisan Islam tidak boleh dianggap sebagai sekadar museum yang steril, tetapi sebuah taman hidup yang selalu dan, kapan saja bisa diolah kembali.” —Enes Karic, Profesor Studi Al-Qur’an di Fakultas Studi Islam, Universitas Sarajevo “Pengingat yang tepat waktu dan penuh semangat bahwa nilai-nilai universal seperti toleransi, kebebasan, dan kesetaraan harus digali dari teks-teks dasar Islam.” —Asma Afsaruddin, Profesor Studi Islam di Indiana University, Bloomington, Penulis Buku Contemporary Issues in Islam “Dalam tiga tradisi monoteistik, tarik-menarik antara akal dan wahyu sudah terjadi sejak dulu kala dan diperdebatkan dengan sengit, tidak terkecuali di kalangan Muslim. Kita berutang budi kepada Akyol karena telah menulis sejarah yang membuka mata tentang cendekiawan dan gerakan minoritas dalam Islam yang sejak awal menyerukan penggunaan akal yang lebih besar dalam teologi dan hukum serta mempromosikan pluralisme dan toleransi. Terutama pada era ketika gelombang massa di seluruh dunia tumpah ke jalan-jalan meneriakkan kebebasan dan martabat, inilah bacaan wajib bagi Muslim dan non-Muslim.” —David L. Johnston, Asisten Profesor Studi Islam, Fuller Theological Seminary, Penulis Muslims and Christians Debate Justice and Love “Dalam buku yang jernih dan menawan ini, Akyol menyeru kepada kita akan perlunya reformasi dalam pemikiran Islam. Sebagai seseorang yang meyakini universalitas akal dan kebebasan, secara piawai menghubungkan isu-isu krusial dalam masyarakat Muslim kontemporer dengan akar masa lalunya. Tetapi, bagi Akyol, sejarah bukanlah peristiwa yang berdiri sendiri, melainkan terjadi untuk memberi pelajaran bagi kita. Dan, pelajarannya adalah bahwa tidak akan ada reformasi politik yang signifikan dan lestari di Dunia Muslim tanpa pembaruan teologis yang fundamental.” —Martino Diez, Profesor Bahasa Arab, Catholic University of Milan “Mustafa Akyol secara bersemangat terlibat dalam isu-isu hangat dan kontroversial, dengan argumen yang dibangun berdasarkan beragam ilmu kontemporer tentang Islam. Dia juga memperluas argumennya yang matang dengan memberikan contoh yang mendukung serta cerita yang menarik. Buku ini brilian.” —Mariam Al-Attar, Dosen Sejarah Peradaban Arab dan Filsafat Islam di American University of Sharjah, Uni Emirat Arab, Penulis Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought “Buku ini sangat penting. Akyol berani menghancurkan tabu demi tabu. Ini harus menjadi bacaan wajib bagi semua Muslim dan non-Muslim yang prihatin dengan keadaan Dunia Islam yang menyedihkan saat ini. Saya sangat merekomendasikannya.” —Murat Çizakça, Profesor Sejarah Ekonomi Komparatif dan Keuangan Islam di Marmara University, Istanbul, Penulis Islamic Capitalism and Finance
This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the physical theory of the Islamic philosopher Avicenna (d. 1037). It seeks to understand his contribution against the developments within the preceding Greek and Arabic intellectual milieus, and to appreciate his philosophy as such by emphasising his independence as a critical and systematic thinker. Exploring Avicenna’s method of "teaching and learning," it investigates the implications of his account of the natural body as a three-dimensionally extended composite of matter and form, and examines his views on nature as a principle of motion and his analysis of its relation to soul. Moreover, it demonstrates how Avicenna defends the Aristotelian conception of place against the strident criticism of his predecessors, among other things, by disproving the existence of void and space. Finally, it sheds new light on Avicenna’s account of the essence and the existence of time. For the first time taking into account the entire range of Avicenna’s major writings, this study fills a gap in our understanding both of the history of natural philosophy in general and of the philosophy of Avicenna in particular. This monograph has been awarded the annual BRAIS – De Gruyter Prize in the Study of Islam and the Muslim World.
In Suhrawardī’s Illuminationism, Jari Kaukua offers a new interpretation of Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī’s (d. 1191 CE) illuminationist (ishrāqī) philosophy. Commonly portrayed as a mystic, Suhrawardī appears here as a critical and systematic philosopher.
Is time a creation of God? How can God be considered eternal, if he is responsible for the existence of time? Is God temporal or is he timeless? The relationship between God and time has been an object of inquiry in philosophical and theological traditions around the world for centuries. This volume takes up these and other questions, presenting a range of answers not only as brought forth in European philosophical traditions and in early Christianity, Judaism and Islam, but also positions taken by mediaeval Indian theologians and in the influential traditions of early Buddhism. Traditionally, discussions have focused on questions such as whether time is a necessary concomitant of God’s existence, or whether time should be identified with God. But there is a further question: did these traditions develop their own unrelated and independent view of God and time? Or are there similarities in their reflections? This volume, with contributions of scholars from various relevant fields, offers a novel approach to these inquiries. When taken as a whole, it provides new momentum to contemplation on an age-old enigma.
This book introduces readers to Abu Bakr al-Razi (known in Latin as Rhazes), one of the most innovative and divisive figures of the early philosophical tradition in the Islamic world. Drawing on his extant works on ethics and a range of quotations and testimony from often hostile medieval authors, Adamson reconstructs Razi's cosmological system, which posits four principles alongside God for the making of the universe: Soul, Matter, Time, and Place. Adamson argues that this system is fundamentally based on Plato, while it accepts Aristotle's physics as a "relative" or superficial description of the universe. This notorious theory of the "five eternals" led to charges of heresy. But through an examination of his debates with contemporary Islamic theologians and representatives of Ismaili Shiism, Adamson shows that Razi's ideas about religion and prophecy may have been distorted by intellectual opponents. Razi's scientific contributions are also considered in depth. One chapter is devoted to the philosophically rewarding aspects of Razi's extensive writings on medicine. His ideas about alchemy are also discussed along with his atomist account of matter. The final chapter looks at Razi's views on ethics, and argues against a prominent interpretation of him as a hedonist inspired by Epicureanism. The book presupposes no prior knowledge of Razi or specialist knowledge of this period in the history of philosophy. It will be rewarding for anyone with an interest in the reception of Greek philosophy, especially Plato, in the history of medicine, or of medieval philosophy more generally.
The general field of study of this volume is the history and culture of the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517). It contains the proceedings of the First German-Japanese Workshop held at the Toyo Bunko in Tokyo, Japan. The authors write about a variety of topics from rural irrigation systems to high diplomacy vis à vis the Safavid empire and the Ottoman threat. The volume includes case studies of important personalities and families living in the centres of Mamluk power such as Cairo and Damascus as well as analyses of contemporary writers and their stance toward the ruling military class. Next to innovation in the field, this volume is an agenda of an increasing globalisation of scholarship that is fertilizing future research.