Women of color, including Asian Pacific American (APA) women, have made considerable inroads into elective office in the United States in recent years; in fact, their numbers have grown more rapidly than those of white women. Nonetheless, focusing only on success stories gives the false impression that racism, sexism, and other forms of oppression are not barriers for APA candidates to public office. It also detracts attention from the persistent and severe under-representation of all women and nonwhite men in elective office in the United States. In Contesting the Last Frontier, Pei-te Lien and Nicole Filler examine the scope and significance of the rise of Asian Pacific Americans in US elective office over the past half-century. To help interpret the complex experiences of these political women and men situated at the intersection of race, gender, and other dimensions of marginalization, Lien and Filler adopt an intersectionality framework that puts women of color at the center of their analysis. They also draw on their own original dataset of APA electoral participation over the past 70 years, as well as in-depth interviews with elected officials. They examine APA candidates' trajectories to office, their divergent patterns of political socialization, the barriers and opportunities they face on the campaign trail, and how these elected officials enact their roles as representatives at local, state, and federal levels of government. In turn, they counter various tropes, including the model minority myth that suggests that Asian Americans have attained a level of success in education, work, and politics that precludes attention to racial discrimination. Importantly, the book also provides a look into how APA elected officials of various origins strive to serve the interests of the rapidly expanding and majority-immigrant population, especially those disadvantaged by the intersections of gender, ethnicity, and nativity. Ambitious and comprehensive, Contesting the Last Frontier fills an important gap in American electoral history and uncovers the lived experiences of APA women and men on the campaign trail and in elective office.
Publisher: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
Category: Business & Economics
The last frontier: people and forests in Mizoram details the relationship between the people and their environment, and between the environment and development. It is set in Mizoram, one of the seven states of the ecologically complex north-eastern region, a land where society and culture present a fascinating blend of tradition and modernity whose history and polity varies from that of most other parts of India. The book traces the environmental history of Mizoram, beginning in the nineteenth century, through colonial rule and into the post-Independence period. It examines the nature of biophysical resources and the influence of human activities on them. Finally, the management of forests by people and the state is analysed, including a detailed discussion on the system of shifting cultivation. Table of Contents: List of figures List of tables Foreword by Dr T N Khoshoo Preface Introduction: The last frontier Part I: An environmental history of Mizoram Chapter 1: The regime of village republics Settlement in the Lushai hills The supremacy of the village chief Forests: abode of the spirits Shifting cultivation or jhum The influence of people on their environment Parameters of resource use Chapter 2: British occupation of the Lushai Hills Compulsions for conquest Economic importance of the Lushai Hills Instruments of insulation The system of administration The new socio-religious order Ecological implications of political events Chapter 3: Forests and fields: colonial land use policy State control over forests The system of commercial extraction of forest produce Revenue from forests The traders’ lobby Game versus vermin The continuance of shifting cultivation New farming methods The drift of public policy Chapter 4: The creation of Mizoram The route to self rule A limited taste of freedom The struggle for Independence From Union Territory to State Isolation, alienation, and regionalism Public participation in governance Legitimizing shifting cultivation Forests for the people Implications for resource use Chapter 5: The roots of environmental change Religion Education Community relations Growth and distribution of population Occupational mobility Urbanization Land use policies Part II: Management of resources: between people and the State Chapter 6: Physiography, land cover, and land use Geomorphology Land forms Climate Soils Types of vegetation cover Land use Chapter 7: Forests, their form and features The extent of forests Basic characteristics The quality of forest resources The wood and bamboo balance Chapter 8: Keepers of the forest The existence of village forest reserves Norms governing village forests Changes in area of village forests Availability of forest produce Control by the village council Imperatives of local management Forests in the hands of the State The incidence of encroachment Regulating commercial use of forests Afforestation programmes Imperatives of governmental management Chapter 9: How shifting cultivation works The element of collectivity Community management of shifting cultivation Preferred sites for j humming Allotment of jhum plots Clearing the forest Burning Sowing Weeding Harvesting The element of uncertainty Chapter 10: The tenacity of shifting cultivation The village scenario The dependence on shifting cultivation The duration of jhum cycles Levels of productivity Chapter 11: The environmental impact of shifting cultivation The post-jhum ecosystem Effect on biodiversity Climatic change due to deforestation Floods in the plains The role of fire - Soil erosion and run-off Sustainability of productivity Myth, conjecture, and reality Chapter 12: The new land use policy · A review of past strategies · The old New Land Use Policy · The Jhum Control Project · Changes in the New Land Use Policy · The alternative to shifting cultivation Conclusion: People and forests in Mizoram Appendices 1. Reserved tree species in the Lushai Hills 2. Domestic animals killed by wild animals in the North Lushai Hills as reported by village writers 3. The Lushai Hills District (Jhumming) Regulation, 1954 4. The Mizo District (Forest) Act, 1954 5. Socio-economic data of Mizoram 6. Agricultural statistics 7. Distribution of slope categories for select river catchments 8. Physical characteristics of soils in Mizoram 9. Tree species found in major forest types 10. Nature of slopes used in shifting cultivation 11. Percentage shares of land use categories in Mizoram 12. General characteristics of vegetation cover in Mizoram 13. Vegetation cover by strata 14. Growing stock per hectare by strata 15. Percentage distribution of stems per hectare by diameter class 16. Major species contributing to basal area in each stratum 17. Wood and bamboo consumption 18. The existence of village forest reserves 19. Changes in the extent of village forest reserves 20. Availability of trees and bamboos for domestic use 21. Detection of offences committed in safety and supply reserves 22. Revenue from forests 23. Carrying capacity of land under shifting cultivation: Mampui and Sairep village (1962) 24. Jhum cycles in Mizoram 25. Shifting cultivation in sample villages 26. Pattern of secondary succession after jhumming at Burnihat 27. Soil and water losses due to shifting cultivation 28. Farming systems research by ICAR RCNEHR (Shillong) at Burnihat: 1976-89 29. Rice production in Mizoram 30. Promising crops for cultivation in the north-eastern region References Index List of figures 1. The location of Mizoram and the north-eastern region in India 2. Territories occupied by Mizo tribes before the British rule 3. The location of places mentioned in chapter 2 and chapter 3 4. Mizoram: geology 5. Mizoram: rivers 6. Mizoram: soil nutrient status 7. Mizoram: forest reserves List of tables Revenue obtained from the hill areas of Eastern Bengal and Assam, 1903-04 Receipts from forests of the Lushai hills district (in rupees, annas, paise) Number of wild animals killed for which rewards were paid: 1943-44 to 1947-48 Percentage of literacy by sea Percentage distribution of total main workers * (approximate estimate based on 1991 census) Area under different categories of slope The pattern of land use in Mizoram (1987-89) Average soil loss and affected area (estimated for five catchments) Extent of vegetation cover in Mizoram (1975-76) Land use and land cover by thematic mapping (1989) District-wise extent of forest (1987-89) The extent of forests by different sources The extent of vegetation cover by type Growing stock of trees and bamboo by strata Species diversity of strata The legal status of forest Family labour involved in clearing forest Gross village income by source in Hmunpui (1964-65) Output-input ratios of cultivation Early succession at Burnihat and Sesawng Coverage of the New Land Use Policy
Published in 1971, Georgia's Last Frontier presents the history of one of the state's least developed regions. During the 1830s, Carroll County was a large part of Georgia's most rugged frontier. James C. Bonner examines how life in this isolated region was complicated by the presence of Native Americans, cattle rustlers, and horse thieves. He details how the discovery of gold in the Villa Rica area resulted in drunkenness and violence, but also laid the foundations of mining technology that were later used in Colorado and California. The region remained isolated until after the Civil War, when a rail line was constructed to stimulate cotton cultivation. With the development of the railway, Carroll County's frontier traditions waned in the early twentieth century.
The existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life has been a subject of debate since the dawn of recorded history. The Last Frontier, originally published in German in 1983 and now available in Helen Atkins's sensitive English translation, traces the development of the idea that Earth is not the only planet inhabited by intelligent beings, but that there might be a plurality or even an infinity of "worlds" with human or humanoid life. Focusing on the seventeenth to the twentieth century and taking into account theological, philosophical, scientific, popular, and literary writings from American, British, French, and German sources, Karl S. Guthke demonstrates the continuing importance of this question to the process of human self-definition.
In this volume, Gordon Morris Bakken traces the distinctive development of western legal history. The contributors' essays provide succinct descriptions of major cases, legislation, and individual western states' constitutional provisions that are unique in the American legal system. To assist the reader, the volume is organized by subject, including natural resources, municipal authority, business regulation, American Indian sovereignty and water rights, women, and Mormons. Contributors are: Roy H. Andes, Dana Blakemore, Richard Griswold del Castillo, Susan Badger Doyle, James W. Ely, Jr., Brenda Gail Farrington, Dale D. Goble, Neil Greenwood, Vanessa Gunther, Louise A Halper, Claudia Hess, Kenneth Hough, Paul Kens, Shenandoah Grant Lynd, Thomas C. Mackey, Nicholas George Malavis, Timothy Miller, Danelle Moon, Andrew P. Morriss, Keith Pacholl, Laurie Caroline Pintar, Michael A. Powell, Ion Puschilla, Emily Rader, Peter L. Reich, John Phillip Reid, Lucy E. Salyer, Susan Sanchez, Janet Schmelzer, Howard Shorr, Paul Reed Spitzzeri, John Joseph Stanley, Donald L. Stelluto, Jr., Timothy A. Strand, Imre Sutton, Nancy J. Taniguchi, and Lonnie Wilson.
For the last thirty years, documented human rights violations have been met with an unprecedented rise in demands for accountability. This trend challenges the use of amnesties which typically foreclose opportunities for criminal prosecutions that some argue are crucial to transitional justice. Recent developments have seen amnesties circumvented, overturned, and resisted by lawyers, states, and judiciaries committed to ending impunity for human rights violations. Yet, despite this global movement, the use of amnesties since the 1970s has not declined. Amnesties, Accountability, and Human Rights examines why and how amnesties persist in the face of mounting pressure to prosecute the perpetrators of human rights violations. Drawing on more than 700 amnesties instituted between 1970 and 2005, Renée Jeffery maps out significant trends in the use of amnesty and offers a historical account of how both the use and the perception of amnesty has changed. As mechanisms to facilitate transitions to democracy, to reconcile divided societies, or to end violent conflicts, amnesties have been adapted to suit the competing demands of contemporary postconflict politics and international accountability norms. Through the history of one evolving political instrument, Amnesties, Accountability, and Human Rights sheds light on the changing thought, practice, and goals of human rights discourse generally.
In 1931 Grey Owl published his first book, The Men of the Last Frontier, a work that is part memoir, part history of the vanishing wilderness in Canada, and part compendium of animal and First Nations tales and lore. A passionate, compelling appeal for the protection and preservation of the natural environment pervades Grey Owls words and makes his literary debut still ring with great relevance in the 21st century. By the 1920s, Canadas outposts of adventure had been thrust farther and farther north to the remote margins of the country. Lumbermen, miners, and trappers invaded the primeval forests, seizing on natures wealth with soulless efficiency. Grey Owl himself fled before the assault as he witnessed his valleys polluted with sawmills, his hills dug up for hidden treasure, and wildlife, particularly his beloved beavers, exterminated for quick fortunes.
When the first Supreme Court convened in 1790, it was so ill-esteemed that its justices frequently resigned in favor of other pursuits. John Rutledge stepped down as Associate Justice to become a state judge in South Carolina; John Jay resigned as Chief Justice to run for Governor of New York; and Alexander Hamilton declined to replace Jay, pursuing a private law practice instead. As Bernard Schwartz shows in this landmark history, the Supreme Court has indeed travelled a long and interesting journey to its current preeminent place in American life. In A History of the Supreme Court, Schwartz provides the finest, most comprehensive one-volume narrative ever published of our highest court. With impeccable scholarship and a clear, engaging style, he tells the story of the justices and their jurisprudence--and the influence the Court has had on American politics and society. With a keen ability to explain complex legal issues for the nonspecialist, he takes us through both the great and the undistinguished Courts of our nation's history. He provides insight into our foremost justices, such as John Marshall (who established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison, an outstanding display of political calculation as well as fine jurisprudence), Roger Taney (whose legacy has been overshadowed by Dred Scott v. Sanford), Oliver Wendell Holmes, Louis Brandeis, Benjamin Cardozo, and others. He draws on evidence such as personal letters and interviews to show how the court has worked, weaving narrative details into deft discussions of the developments in constitutional law. Schwartz also examines the operations of the court: until 1935, it met in a small room under the Senate--so cramped that the judges had to put on their robes in full view of the spectators. But when the new building was finally opened, one justice called it "almost bombastically pretentious," and another asked, "What are we supposed to do, ride in on nine elephants?" He includes fascinating asides, on the debate in the first Court, for instance, over the use of English-style wigs and gowns (the decision: gowns, no wigs); and on the day Oliver Wendell Holmes announced his resignation--the same day that Earl Warren, as a California District Attorney, argued his first case before the Court. The author brings the story right up to the present day, offering balanced analyses of the pivotal Warren Court and the Rehnquist Court through 1992 (including, of course, the arrival of Clarence Thomas). In addition, he includes four special chapters on watershed cases: Dred Scott v. Sanford, Lochner v. New York, Brown v. Board of Education, and Roe v. Wade. Schwartz not only analyzes the impact of each of these epoch-making cases, he takes us behind the scenes, drawing on all available evidence to show how the justices debated the cases and how they settled on their opinions. Bernard Schwartz is one of the most highly regarded scholars of the Supreme Court, author of dozens of books on the law, and winner of the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award. In this remarkable account, he provides the definitive one-volume account of our nation's highest court.
Massacres, mayhem, and mischief fill the pages of Outlaw Tales of Alaska. Pan for gold with dry gulchers and claim jumpers. Duck the bullets of murderers, plot strategies with con artists, hiss at lawmen turned outlaws. A refreshing new perspective on some of the most infamous reprobates of the Last Frontier. From Unimak Island to Fairbanks, and beyond, the Last Frontier was populated by characters as tough and as dangerous as any in the lower forty-eight. Take the legendary Blue Parka Bandit--whose generosity earned him Robin Hood status among some, and whose flair for escapes kept folks on edge even after his arrest. Or Fred Hardy who, in 1902, achieved the dubious distinction of being the first convicted murderer hung by the feds in the Territory of Alaska. That's not to mention "Kultuk," whose murderous exploits spread fear through the hearts of trappers in his rugged domain.
'This collection presents significant summaries of past criminal behavior, and significant new cultural and political contextualizations that provide greater understanding of the complex effects of crime, sovereignty, culture, and colonization on crime and criminalization on Indian reservations.' Duane Champagne, UCLA (From the Foreword) Native Americans and the Criminal Justice System offers a comprehensive approach to explaining the causes, effects, and solutions for the presence and plight of Native Americans in the criminal justice system. Articles from scholars and experts in Native American issues examine the ways in which society's response to Native Americans is often socially constructed. The contributors work to dispel the myths surrounding the crimes committed by Native Americans and assertions about the role of criminal justice agencies that interact with Native Americans. In doing so, the contributors emphasize the historical, social, and cultural roots of Anglo European conflicts with Native peoples and how they are manifested in the criminal justice system. Selected chapters also consider the global and cross-national ramifications of Native Americans and crime. This book systematically analyzes the broad nature of the subject area, including unique and emerging problems, theoretical issues, and policy implications.