The transmission of the nervous impulse is always from the dendritic branches and the cell body to the axon or functional process. Every neuron, then, possesses a receptor apparatus, the body and the dendritic prolongations, an apparatus of emission, the axon, and the apparatus of distribution, the terminal arborization of the nerve fibers. I designated the foregoing principle: the theory of dynamic polarization (Cajal 1923). Ever since the beautiful drawings from Golgi and Cajal, we have been familiar with the organisation of neurones into dendritic, somatic and axonal compartments. Cajal proposed that these cellular compartments were specialised, resulting in his concept of ^dynamic polarisation'. He considered dendrites to be passive elements that simply transferred information from inputs to the soma. Since the discovery that dendrites of many neural populations release neuroactive substances and in doing so, alter neuronal output, it is now apparent that this theory requires qualification. This book presents recent developments in the neurophysiology of dendritic release of several chemical classes of transmitters in a number of different areas of the mammalian central nervous system. Once released from a neuron, these substances can act as neurotransmitters and/or neuromodulators, to autoregulate the original neuron, its synaptic inputs, and adjacent cells or, by volume transmission, to affect distant cells. In some systems, dendritic transmitter release is part independent of secretion from axon terminal signifying a selective control of the dendritic compartment.
Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, a comprehensive text on neurochemistry, is now updated and revised in its Seventh Edition. This well-established text has been recognized worldwide as a resource for postgraduate trainees and teachers in neurology, psychiatry, and basic neuroscience, as well as for graduate and postgraduate students and instructors in the neurosciences. It is an excellent source of information on basic biochemical processes in brain function and disease for qualifying examinations and continuing medical education. Completely updated with 60% new authors and material, and entirely new chapters Over 400 fully revised figures in splendid color
This book covers the past, present and future of the intra-cellular trafficking field, which has made a quantum leap in the last few decades. It details how the field has developed and evolved as well as examines future directions.
The volume advances research in the philosophy of technology by introducing contributors who have an acute sense of how to get beyond or reframe the epistemic, ontological and normative limitations that currently limit the fields of philosophy of technology and science and technology studies.
Neurons in the nervous system organize into complex networks and their functions are precisely controlled. The most important means for neurons to communicate with each other is transmission through chemical synapses, where the release of neurotransmitters by the presynaptic nerve terminal of one neuron influences the function of a second neuron. Since the discovery of chemical neurotransmission by Otto Loewi in the 1920s, great progress has been made in our understanding of mol- ular mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. The last decade has seen an explosion of knowledge in this field. The aim of Molecular Mechanisms of Neurotransmitter Release is to provide up-to-date, in-depth coverage of essentially all major mole- lar mechanisms of neurotransmitter release. The contributors have made great efforts to write concisely but with sufficient background information, and to use figures/diagrams to present clearly key concepts or experiments. It is hoped that this book may serve as a learning tool for neuroscience students, a solid reference for neuroscientists, and a source of knowledge for people who have a general interest in neuroscience. I was fortunate to be able to gather contributions from a group of outstanding scientists. I thank them for their efforts. In particular, I want to thank Dr. Erik Jorgensen who offered valuable suggestions about the book in addition to contrib- ing an excellent chapter. I thank US National Science Foundation and National Institute of Health for their supports.
Although, Phagocytosis was first described nearly 120 year ago, we are just recently beginning to understand the molecules that phagocytic cells use to bring about this complex cell function. Molecular Mechanisms of Phagocytosis was prepared as a series of up-to-date essays (chapters) that describe the present knowledge on the various steps of the phagocytic process from initial cell contact, through internalization of the foreign particle, to the final phagosome formation where the phagocytosed particle is destroyed.
The Encyclopedia of the Neuroscience explores all areas of the discipline in its focused entries on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. Each article is written by an expert in that specific domain and peer reviewed by the advisory board before acceptance into the encyclopedia. Each article contains a glossary, introduction, a reference section, and cross-references to other related encyclopedia articles. Written at a level suitable for university undergraduates, the breadth and depth of coverage will appeal beyond undergraduates to professionals and academics in related fields.
This text is an introduction to the interface between the actin cytoskeleton and the myriad of issues fundamental to the understanding of the nervous system. It covers the neurobiology of actin ranging from basic cellular organization and function to the roles of actin in the health and disease states of the nervous system. Its opening chapter presents the fundamental concepts required to appreciate the details of the molecular machinery that regulates actin in a cellular context, setting the stage for the first part of the book which reviews the neurobiology of actin at the cellular level. The latter section of the book then discusses the functions of actin in the context of neurobiological issues ranging from early development to synaptic function and disease states of the nervous system. This text is intended for neuroscientists interested in investigating the actin cytoskeleton in the context of their particular neuroscience research program, and its chapters are cross-referenced in order to assist readers in finding relevant information that is covered in greater depth in other chapters.
Understanding Insulin and Insulin Resistance is written in simple, clear language with diagrams that show the complex interplay of various factors in the initiation of insulin resistance. The design is systematic and meticulous, portraying topics in a flow from simple to complex. This resource is intended for a broad audience spanning across biochemistry, medicine, dentistry, academia, physicians, and research scholars. It extends the approach to biochemistry, physiology, metabolism of insulin along with the coverage of pathophysiology of insulin resistance, its effects on the body tissues, and its analysis on insulin resistance syndrome. Combines both intensive and extensive study material related to the topic Describes insulin resistance syndrome encompassing details regarding its prevalence and components Blends both theoretical and clinical knowledge related to insulin and insulin resistance syndrome Gathers the vast knowledge about insulin and insulin resistance in one volume, eliminating searches through hundreds of journal articles
Handbook of Basal Ganglia Structure and Function, Second Edition, offers an integrated overview of the structural and functional aspects of the basal ganglia, highlighting clinical relevance. The basal ganglia, a group of forebrain nuclei interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, are involved in numerous brain functions, such as motor control and learning, sensorimotor integration, reward, and cognition. These nuclei are essential for normal brain function and behavior, and their importance is further emphasized by the numerous and diverse disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction, including Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, Huntington’s disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, dystonia, and psychostimulant addiction. This updated edition has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date account of this critical brain structure. Edited and authored by internationally acclaimed basal ganglia researchers, the new edition contains ten entirely new chapters that offer expanded coverage of anatomy and physiology, detailed accounts of recent advances in cellular/molecular mechanisms and cellular/physiological mechanisms, and critical, deeper insights into the behavioral and clinical aspects of basal ganglia function and dysfunction. Synthesizes widely dispersed information on the behavioral neurobiology of the basal ganglia, including advances in the understanding of anatomy, cellular/molecular and cellular/physiological mechanisms, and behavioral and clinical aspects of function and dysfunction Written by international authors who are preeminent researchers in the field Explores, in full, the clinically relevant impact of the basal ganglia on various psychiatric and neurological diseases