Advances in molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology have accelerated progress in many fields of life science research, including gene therapy. A large number of genetic engineering approaches and methods are readily available for gene cloning and therapeutic vector construction. Significant progress is being made in genomic, DNA sequencing, gene expression, gene delivery and cloning. Thus gene therapy has already shown that it holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases and disorders. In general it involves the delivery of recombinant genes or transgenes into somatic cells to replace proteins with a genetic defect or to transfer with the pathological process of an illness. The viral and non-viral delivery systems may hold the potential for future non-invasive, cost-effective oral therapy of genetically-based disorders. Recent years have seen considerable progress in the discovery and early clinical development of a variety of gene therapeutic products. The availability, validation, and implementation of gene therapeutic products has also enabled success in testing and evaluation. New challenges will need to be overcome to ensure that products will also be successful in later clinical development and ultimately for marketing authorisation. These new challenges will include improvements in delivery systems, better control of in-vivo targeting, increased level transduction and duration of expression of the gene, and manufacturing process efficiencies that enable reduction in production costs. Perhaps profound understanding of regulated gene design may result in innovative bioproducts exhibiting safety and efficacy profiles that are significantly superior to those achieved by the use of naturally occurring genes. This procedure may contribute considerably to fulfilling standards set by regulatory authorities. This book provides an overview of the current advances in the field of gene therapy and the methods that are being successfully applied in the manufacture of gene therapeutic products, and hopefully will stimulate further progress and advancement in this field to meet the ever-increasing demands.
Publisher: Sudwestdeutscher Verlag Fur Hochschulschriften AG
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) represents a new class of medicinal products, which include - amongst others - somatic cell and gene therapies. As the final product is intended for administration into humans, manufacturers of ATMPs are obligated to apply good manufacturing practice (GMP) standards within their processes. Reaching and maintaining such standards is cost intensive and requires sophisticated manufacturing facilities. As a result, academic researchers who are developing these novel therapeutic approaches are facing new technological and financial challenges. In order to bring more commercially accessible therapies to patients and demonstrate efficient manufacturing technologies, we established the clean-room technology assessment technique (CTAT). CTAT comprises several tools to identify and assign a reliable monetary value to the different operational processes. The model also serves as a guideline for optimizing the operation of an academic GMP facility.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
On June 26, 2017, the Forum on Regenerative Medicine hosted a public workshop in Washington, DC, titled Navigating the Manufacturing Process and Ensuring the Quality of Regenerative Medicine Therapies in order to examine and discuss the challenges, opportunities, and best practices associated with defining and measuring the quality of cell and tissue products and raw materials in the research and manufacturing of regenerative medicine therapies. The goal of the workshop was to learn from existing examples of the manufacturing of early-generation regenerative medicine products and to address how progress could be made in identifying and measuring critical quality attributes. The workshop also addressed the challenges of designing and adhering to standards as a way of helping those who are working to scale up processes and techniques from a research laboratory to the manufacturing environment. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
This book is intended as a one-stop resource for availability of state-of-the-art information related to cell and gene therapy products for researchers, scientists, management and other academic and research institutions working in the field.
1 D.V. Schaffer, W. Zhou: Gene Therapy as Future Human Therapeutics.- 2 J. Heidel, S. Mishra, M.E. Davis: Molecular Conjugates.- 3 M. Manthorpe, P. Hobart, G. Hermanson, M. Ferrari, A. Geall, B. Goff, A. Rolland: Plasmid Vaccines and Therapeutics: From Design to Applications.- 4 S.R. Little, R. Langer: Non-Viral Delivery of Cancer Genetic Vaccines.- 5 J.C. Grieger, R.J. Samulski: Adeno-Associated Virus as a Gene Therapy Vector: Vector Development, Production and Clinical Applications.- 6 J.H. Yu, D.V. Schaffer: Advanced Targeting Strategies for Murine Retroviral and Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors.- 7 N. Loewen, E.M. Poeschla: Lentiviral Vectors.- 8 N.E. Altaras, J.G. Aunins, R.K. Evans, A. Kamen, J.O. Konz, J.J. Wolf: Production and Formulation of Adenovirus Vectors.-
The book addresses the basics, applications, and manufacturing of plasmid biopharmaceuticals. The survey of the most relevant characteristics of plasmids provides the basics for designing plasmid products (applications) and processes (manufacturing). Key features that the authors include in the book are: i) consistency and clear line of direction, ii) an extensive use of cross-referencing between the individual chapters, iii) a rational integration of chapters, iv) appellative figures, tables and schemes, and v) an updated, but selected choice of references, with a focus on key papers.
This new edition presents a fully-updated and expanded look at current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for cell therapy products. It provides a complete discussion of facility design and operation including details specific to cord blood banking, cell processing, vector production and qualification of a new facility. Several chapters cover facility infrastructure including cleaning and maintenance, vendor qualification, writing a Standard Operating Procedure, staff training, and process validation. The detailed and invaluable product information covers topics like labelling, release and administration, transportation and shipment, et al. Further chapters cover relevant topics like writing and maintaining investigational new drug applications, support opportunities in North America and the European Union, commercial cell processing and quality testing services, and financial considerations for academic GMP facilities. A chapter on future directions rounds out Cell Therapy: cGMP Facilities and Manufacturing making it essential reading for any cell therapy professional involved in the development, use, or management of this type of facility.
Provides expert, state-of-the-art insight into the currentprogress of viral and non-viral gene therapy Translational medicine has opened the gateway to the era ofpersonalized or precision medicine. No longer a one-size-fits-allapproach, the treatment of cancer is now based on an understandingof underlying biologic mechanisms and is increasingly beingtailored to the molecular specificity of a tumor. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the pertinentmolecular discoveries in the cancer field and explains how theseare being used for gene-based cancer therapies. Designed as avolume in the Translational Oncology book series, Cancer GeneTherapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors deals with the practiceof gene-therapy, with reference to vectors for gene expression andgene transfer, as well as viral therapy. It covers the history andcurrent and future applications of gene transfer in cancer, andprovides expert insight on the progress of viral and non-viral genetherapy with regard to delivery system, vector design, potentialtherapeutic genes, and principles and regulations for cancer genetherapy. Presented in three parts, Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral andNon-viral Vectors covers: Delivery Systems • Translational Cancer Research: Gene Therapy by Viraland Non-viral Vectors • Retroviruses for Cancer Therapy • DNA Plasmids for Non-viral Gene Therapy ofCancer • Cancer Therapy with RNAi delivered by Non-viralMembrane/Core Nanoparticles Targeted Expression • Cancer Gene Therapy by Tissue-specific andCancer-targeting Promptors • MicroRNAs as Drugs and Drug Targets in Cancer Principles of Clinical Trials in Gene Therapy • Regulatory issues for Manufacturers of Viral Vectorsand Vector-transduced Cells for Phase I/II Trials • US Regulations Governing Clinical Trials in GeneTherapy • Remaining Obstacles to the Success of Cancer GeneTherapy Focusing on speeding the process in clinical cancer care bybringing therapies as quickly as possible from bench to bedside,Cancer Gene Therapy by Viral and Non-viral Vectors is anabsolutely vital book for physicians, clinicians, researchers, andstudents involved in this area of medicine.
The huge potential for gene therapy to cure a wide range of diseases has led to high expectations and a great increase in research efforts in this area, particularly in the study of delivery via viral vectors, widely considered to be more efficient than DNA transfection. In Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy: Methods and Protocols, experts in the field present a collection of their knowledge and experience featuring methodologies that involve virus production, transferring protocols, and evaluating the efficacy of gene products. While thoroughly covering the most popular viral vector systems of adenovirus, retrovirus, and adeno-associated virus, this detailed volume also explores less common viral vector systems such as baculovirus, herpes virus, and measles virus, the growing interest in which is creating a considerable demand for large scale manufacturing and purification procedures. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, many chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and vital tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and practical, Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy: Methods and Protocols provides basic principles accessible to scientists from a wide variety of backgrounds for the development of gene therapy viral products that are safe and effective.
This Brief describes the concept and realization of gene therapy for HIV from the unique historic perspective and insight of two pioneers of the clinical applications of stem cell gene therapy for HIV. Gerhard Bauer applied ribozyme-anti-HIV and other vectors to manufacture clinical grade, HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem cells for the first patients that received stem cell gene therapy for HIV, including the first child in the world and the first fully marrow-ablated HIV infected patient. Joseph Anderson developed the most recent and most potent combination anti-HIV lentiviral vectors and pluripotent stem cell applications for HIV gene therapy and tested these in the appropriate in vitro and vivo models, paving the way for novel HIV gene therapy approaches to possibly cure patients. In Gene Therapy for HIV, Bauer and Anderson discuss the unique aspects of this therapy, including its limitations and proper safety precautions and outline a path for a possible functional cure for HIV using stem cell gene therapy based on a cure already achieved with a bone marrow stem cell transplantation performed in Germany using donor stem cells with a naturally arising CCR5 mutation. In addition, the Brief provides a thorough and methodical explanation of the basics of gene therapy, gene therapy vector development, in vitro and in vivo models for HIV gene therapy and clinical applications of HIV gene therapy, including Good Manufacturing Practices.
This book delivers a collection of organized and succinct reviews in the field of therapeutic genetic medicine presented by a carefully selected group of top experts. Each chapter focuses on a single, current topic and explains issues in the development of genetic treatments, critical challenges and strategies for implementing them, and future directions in research and translational applications. The book is complemented with uniformly designed illustrations and a supplementary Web site with a PowerPoint presentation for educators.
Clinical and preclinical exploration of gene and cellular immunotherapy have seen rapid growth and interest with the development and approval of five Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) products for lymphoma and myeloma and one Bispecific T-Cell Engager (BiTE) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These advances have dramatically improved the management of patients with relapsed refractory lymphoma, myeloma and leukemia. Gene and Cellular Immunotherapy for Cancer offers readers a comprehensive review of current cellular and gene-based immunotherapies. Divided into eighteen cohesive chapters, this book provides an in-depth and detailed look into cellular-based immunotherapies including CAR-T, TCR-T, TIL, Viral CTLs, NK cells in addition to T/NK cell engagers, focusing on their historical perspectives, biology, development and manufacturing, toxicities and more. Edited by two leading experts on gene and cellular immunotherapy, the book will feature chapters written by a diverse collection of recognized and up-and-coming experts and researchers in the field, providing oncologists, immunologists, researchers and clinical and basic science trainees with a bench to bedside view of the latest developments in the field.