In this study, an overview is presented of agricultural policies on manure and minerals, relating to the Nitrate Directive to remedy excessive surface- and groundwater contamination from intensive agricultural practices. Six countries belonging to the European Union were studied: the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The policies and their legal incorporation were related to agricultural and environmental conditions in each country. In addition, an inventory was made of agricultural mineral poli cies in the United States and Canada. Conditions for livestock farming in North America differ considerably from those in Europe, but their solutions shed a different light on European policies. Research has shown that there are still very considerable mineral surpluses in many countries and regions. In both the Netherlands and in the Flemish part of Belgium, existing problems due to very high levels of manure production are structural rather than local and cannot easily be solved by transport of manure to other regions. To a lesser extent. Germany, Denmark and relatively small parts of France (Brittany) and the United Kingdom, still exceed the norms for an equilibrium fertilization. In Denmark, existing problems can probably be solved within the existing legislative framework. The Netherlands, Flanders. several German Lander (Nordrhein-Westfalen and Schleswig-Holstein) and Brittany.
Nutrients from livestock & poultry manure are key sources of water pollution. Ever-growing numbers of animals per farm & per acre have increased the risk of water pollution. New Clean Water Act regulations compel the large confined animal producers to meet nutrient application standards when applying manure to the land, & USDA encourages all animal feeding operations to do the same. The additional costs for managing manure (such as hauling manure off the farm) have implications for feedgrain producers & consumers as well. This report¿s farm level analysis examines onfarm technical choice & producer costs across major U.S. production areas for hauling manure to the minimum amount of land needed to assimilate manure nutrients. Illustrations.
Over the past century American agriculture has shifted dramatically with small, commercial farms finding it increasingly difficult to compete with large-scale (mostly indoor) animal feeding operations (AFOs). In this book, Terence J. Centner investigates the environmental, social, economic, and political impact of the rise of the so-called factory farm, exposing the ramifications of the contemporary trend toward industrial-scale food production. Just as Rachel Carson's landmark Silent Spring used the disappearance of songbirds as a jumping-off point for a work that raised public awareness of pesticides' devastating environmental impact, Empty Pastures sees the dwindling numbers of livestock in the American countryside as a symptom of a broader transformation, one with serious consequences for the rural landscape and its inhabitants--animal as well as human. After outlining the rise of the AFO, Centner examines the troubling consequences of consolidation in animal farming and suggests a number of remedies. The issues he tackles include groundwater contamination, the loss of biodiversity, animal welfare, concentrated odors and other nuisances, soil erosion, and the economic effects of the disappearance of the small family farm. Inspired by largely abandoned traditional practices rather than a radical and unrealistic vision of a return to an idealized past, Centner proposes a series of pragmatic reforms for regulating factory farms to halt ecological degradation and revitalize rural communities.
Environmental protection is a global issue. But most of the action is happening at the local level. How can communities keep their air clean, their water pure, and their people and property safe from climate and environmental hazards? Newly updated, The Environmental Planning Handbook gives local governments, nonprofits, and citizens the guidance they need to create an action plan they can implement now. It’s essential reading for a post-Katrina, post-Sandy world.