This go-to reference work surveys the current state of knowledge in the field of metal soap-related degradation phenomena in art works. It contains detailed descriptions and images of the different phenomena and addresses the practical aspects of soap formation, preventive conservation, and treatment. The occurrence of metal soaps is one of the defining issues in the conservation of painted surfaces, and one that presently leaves innumerable open questions. It is estimated that around 70% of paintings in museum collections are affected by some form of metal soap-related degradation. In recent years, significant advances have been made in the detection and characterization of these compounds through interdisciplinary approaches including conventional spectroscopy and microscopy as well as emerging synchrotron-based techniques. This book for the first time captures a panoramic overview of the state of knowledge of metal soaps related to both scientific analysis and implications for conservation and treatment. It also critically examines open questions. The book is accessible to audiences with varied backgrounds (e.g. conservators, students of conservation science) while simultaneously presenting the technical details indispensable for academics and researchers active in this field.
This book reports a series of electrochemical experiments where copper was corroded in the presence of various organic substances. Combining data from spectroscopy techniques, X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry (including proteomics) the experiments demonstrate that copper-organic complexes can be formed during the corrosion of copper. The low solubility of copper-organic complexes in organic solvents and their amorphous nature mean that these compounds cannot be easily detected by one single analytical technique. This book benefits researchers investigating the presence of organic residues in archaeological copper corrosion and copper-organic complexes in art, where sampling is often subject to curatorial constraints. .
Conservation of Easel Paintings is the first comprehensive text on the history, philosophy, and methods of treatment of easel paintings that combines both theory with practice. With contributions from an international group of experts and interviews with important artists, this volume provides an all-encompassing guide to necessary background knowledge in technical art history, artists' materials, scientific methods of examination and documentation, with sections that present varying approaches and methods for treatment, including consolidation, lining, cleaning, retouching, and varnishing. The book concludes with a section featuring issues of preventive conservation, storage, shipping, exhibition, lighting, safety issues, and public outreach. Conservation of Easel Paintings is a crucial resource in the training of conservation students and will provide generations of practicing paintings conservators and interested art historians, curators, directors, collectors, dealers, artists, and students of art and art history with invaluable information and guidance.
Chemical Analysis provides non invasive and micro-analytical techniques for the investigation of cultural heritage materials. The tools and techniques, discussed by experts in the field, are of universal, sensitive and multi-component nature.
The most comprehensive resource available on the many applications of portable spectrometers, including material not found in any other published work Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry: Volume Two is an authoritative and up-to-date compendium of the diverse applications for portable spectrometers across numerous disciplines. Whereas Volume One focuses on the specific technologies of the portable spectrometers themselves, Volume Two explores the use of portable instruments in wide range of fields, including pharmaceutical development, clinical research, food analysis, forensic science, geology, astrobiology, cultural heritage and archaeology. Volume Two features contributions by a multidisciplinary team of experts with hands-on experience using portable instruments in their respective areas of expertise. Organized both by instrumentation type and by scientific or technical discipline, 21 detailed chapters cover various applications of portable ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), infrared and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, smartphone spectroscopy, and many others. Filling a significant gap in literature on the subject, the second volume of Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry: Features a significant amount of content published for the first time, or not available in existing literature Brings together work by authors with assorted backgrounds and fields of study Discusses the central role of applications in portable instrument development Covers the algorithms, calibrations, and libraries that are of critical importance to successful applications of portable instruments Includes chapters on portable spectroscopy applications in areas such as the military, agriculture and feed, hazardous materials (HazMat), art conservation, and environmental science Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry: Volume Two is an indispensable resource for developers of portable instruments in universities, research institutes, instrument companies, civilian and government purchasers, trainers, operators of portable instruments, and educators and students in portable spectroscopy courses.
"Compiled from Official gazette. Beginning with 1876, the volumes have included also decisions of United States courts, decisions of Secretary of Interior, opinions of Attorney-General, and important decisions of state courts in relation to patents, trade-marks, etc. 1869-94, not in Congressional set." Checklist of U. S. public documents, 1789-1909, p. 530.