The general trend towards miniaturisation and parallelism in optics and electro-optics has led to a requirement for arrays of sub-millimetre sized lenses. Thus, the demand for these microlens arrays has increased dramatically over recent years. Dan Daly's book describes the technology of microlens arrays and provides a recipe for producing them. It surveys the many fabrication techniques and discusses the numerous applications which either require or enhanced by the use of microlens arrays. This book gives a full description of the processes involved in production and limitations of the techniques. Processes looked at include the Thermal Reflow of Photoresist technique and the Silicon Elastomer Replication Process. As the measurement of microlenses is an intrinsic part of the production process, the methods which can be used to evaluate lens performance are explained.
Due to the development of microscale fabrication methods, microlenses are being used more and more in many unique applications, such as artificial implementations of compound eyes, optical communications, and labs-on-chips. Liquid microlenses, in particular, represent an important and growing research area yet there are no books devoted to this topic that summarize the research to date. Rectifying this deficiency, Microlenses: Properties, Fabrication and Liquid Lenses examines the recent progress in the emerging field of liquid-based microlenses. After describing how certain problems in optics can be solved by liquid microlenses, the book introduces the physics and fabrication methods involved in microlenses. It also details the facility and equipment requirements for general fabrication methods. The authors then present examples of various microlenses with non-tunable and tunable focal lengths based on different mechanisms, including: Non-tunable microlenses: Ge/SiO2 core/shell nanolenses, glass lenses made by isotropic etching, self-assembled lenses and lens arrays, lenses fabricated by direct photo-induced polymerization, lenses formed by thermally reflowing photoresist, lenses formed from inkjet printing, arrays fabricated through molding processes, and injection-molded plastic lenses Electrically tuned microlenses: liquid crystal-based lenses and liquid lenses driven by electrostatic forces, dielectrophoretic forces, electrowetting, and electrochemical reactions Mechanically tunable microlenses: thin-membrane lenses with varying apertures, pressures, and surface shapes; swellable hydrogel lenses; liquid–liquid interface lenses actuated by environmentally stimuli-responsive hydrogels; and oscillating lens arrays driven by sound waves Horizontal microlenses: two-dimensional polymer lenses, tunable and movable liquid droplets as lenses, hydrodynamically tuned cylindrical lenses, liquid core and liquid cladding lenses, air–liquid interface lenses, and tunable liquid gradient refractive index lenses The book concludes by summarizing the importance of microlenses, shedding light on future microlens work, and exploring related challenges, such as the packaging of systems, effects of gravity, evaporation of liquids, aberrations, and integration with other optical components.
Author: Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
Publisher: SPIE Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The resonator can be considered the real heart of any laser system, the key element that determines the properties of laser radiation, including mode structure or temporal and spatial characteristics. The theory of different laser types has been well-developed in the last few decades of the 20th century, starting with the pioneering papers of Fox, Li, Body and Gordon. But today, due to the development of new types of lasers (fibre, diode), new optical elements (adaptive mirrors, phase conjugation techniques, graded phase correctors), the development of optical technology, and new needs for industrial lasers, novel types of resonators are under investigation.
The Sixth International Conference on Miniaturized Chemical and Biochemical Analysis Systems, known as /JTAS2002, will be fully dedicated to the latest scientific and technological developments in the field of miniaturized devices and systems for realizing not only chemical and biochemical analysis but also synthesis. The first /JTAS meeting was held in Enschede in 1994 with approximately 160 participants, bringing together the scientists with background in analytical and biochemistry with those with Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) in one workshop. We are grateful to Piet Bergveld and Albert van den Berg of MESA Research Institute of the University of Twente for their great efforts to arrange this exciting first meeting. The policy of the meeting was succeeded by late Prof. Dr. Michael Widmer in the second meeting, /JTAS'96 held in Basel with 275 participants. The first two meetings were held as informal workshops. From the third workshop, /JTAS'98 (420 participants) held in Banff, the workshop had become a worldwide conference. Participants continued to increase in /JTAS2000 (about 500 participants) held in Enschede and /JTAS2001 (about 700 participants) held in Monterey. The number of submitted papers also dramatically increased in this period from 130 in 1998, 230 in 2000 to nearly 400 in 2001. From 2001, /JTAS became an annual symposium. The steering committee meeting held in Monterey, confrrmed the policy of former /JTAS that quality rather than quantity would be the key-point and that the parallel-session format throughout the 3.
Nanotechnology has received tremendous interest over the last decade, not only from the scientific community but also from a business perspective and from the general public. Although nanotechnology is still at the largely unexplored frontier of science, it has the potential for extremely exciting technological innovations that will have an enormous impact on areas as diverse as information technology, medicine, energy supply and probably many others. The miniturization of devices and structures will impact the speed of devices and information storage capacity. More importantly, though, nanotechnology should lead to completely new functional devices as nanostructures have fundamentally different physical properties that are governed by quantum effects. When nanometer sized features are fabricated in materials that are currently used in electronic, magnetic, and optical applications, quantum behavior will lead to a set of unprecedented properties. The interactions of nanostructures with biological materials are largely unexplored. Future work in this direction should yield enabling technologies that allows the study and direct manipulation of biological processes at the (sub) cellular level.
The global success of the 1st edition of Nanochemistry, along with exceptionally rapid change in the field, has necessitated the publication of a 2nd edition after only three years. This truly major update highlights the latest breakthroughs using more than eighty new case histories, more problem sets, and more teaching principles. Nanotechnology is touted to begin a new era by bringing us materials that were not available before. This book describes the fascinating chemistry behind nanotechnology in a clear and easy to read style. Aimed at teachers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates it provides an authoritative, rigorous and hype-free guide to this burgeoning field. For those who already have some knowledge of the subject, the book remains invaluable as a reference and source of inspiration for future research or teaching. Suitable for those coming from a physics, biology, medicine, materials science, engineering or chemistry background, the book is ideal for whoever needs a birds-eye view of the field. The extensive bibliography allows the reader to find any level of detail behind each of the subjects.
This volume contains the proceedings of the fourth international symposium on Micro Total Analysis Systems (muTAS 2000). Cutting-edge research of all invited and contributed papers presented by the world’s leading muTAS groups provides the state of the art of this electrifying, multidisciplinary field.
The advent of microelectromechanic system (MEMS) technologies and nanotechnologies has resulted in a multitude of structures and devices with ultra compact dimensions and with vastly enhanced or even completely novel properties. In the field of photonics it resulted in the appearance of new paradigms, including photonic crystals that exhibit photonic bandgap and represent an optical analog of semiconductors and metamaterials that have subwavelength features and may have almost arbitrary values of effective refractive index, including those below zero. In addition to that, a whole new field of plasmonics appeared, dedicated to the manipulation with evanescent, surface-bound electromagnetic waves and offering an opportunity to merge nanoelectronics with all-optical circuitry. In the field of infrared technologies MEMS and nanotechnologies ensured the appearance of a new generation of silicon-based thermal detectors with properties vastly surpassing the conventional thermal devices. However, another family of infrared detectors, photonic devices based on narrow-bandgap semiconductors, has traditionally been superior to thermal detectors. Literature about their micro and nanophotonic enhancement has been scarce and scattered through journals. This book offers the first systematic approach to numerous different MEMS and nanotechnology-based methods available for the improvement of photonic infrared detectors and points out to a path towards uncooled operation with the performance of cryogenically cooled devices. It is shown that a vast area for enhancement does exists and that photonic devices can readily keep their leading position in infrared detection. The various methods and approaches described in the book are also directly applicable to different other types of photodetectors like solar cells, often with little or no modification.
In the near future, organic semiconductors may be used in a variety of products, including flat-screen TVs, e-book readers, and third-generation organic photovoltaics applications, to name just a few. While organic electronics has received increased attention in scientific journals, those working in this burgeoning field require more in-depth coverage of the subject. Considering the rapid development in this field, Organic Electronics: Materials, Processing, Devices and Applications is a long-overdue assessment of state-of-the-art technology in organic electronics. This valuable reference harnesses the insight of various experts in the field, who contribute entire chapters on their area of specialty, covering chemistry and materials, fundamental physics, device processing, fabrication, and applications. Coverage includes cutting-edge advances in: Organic vapor phase deposition to fabricate organic nanostructures Organic semiconductor device physics Organic thin film and vertical transistors Organic photovoltaic cells OLED technologies for flat panel displays and lighting With its detailed discussion of the latest developments in the field of organic semiconductor materials and devices, this versatile book is ideally suited as a reference tool for scientists, engineers, and researchers or as an overview for those new to the field. In either capacity, its broad range of material will serve as a base for the further development of new sciences and technologies in this area.
The scientific photography of small subjects encompasses the domains of close-up photography, macrophotography and photomacrography, and is a primary documentation tool in many research fields. This book concentrates on the choice and practical use of digital cameras, lenses and related equipment of types commonly available at research institutions and museums. The described techniques are suitable for subject sizes between approximately half a millimeter and half a meter, and differ from those used in general photography and microscopy. The intended audience of this book includes professional scientific photographers, scientists and students who need to carry out photography in support of their own research or as part-time scientific photographers at a research institution, and advanced amateur photographers who wish to master these techniques.