This advanced comprehensive textbook introduces the practical application of phase diagrams to the thermodynamics of materials consisting of several phases. It describes the fundamental physics and thermodynamics as well as experimental methods, treating all material classes: metals, glasses, ceramics, polymers, organic materials, aqueous solutions. With many application examples and realistic cases from chemistry and materials science, it is intended for students and researchers in chemistry, metallurgy, mineralogy, and materials science as well as in engineering and physics. The authors treat the nucleation of phase transitions, the production and stability of technologically important metastable phases, and metallic glasses. Also concisely presented are the thermodynamics and composition of polymer systems. This innovative text puts this powerful analytical approach into a readily understandable and practical context, perhaps for the first time.
Studies in Modern Thermodynamics, 3: Phase Theory: The Thermodynamics of Heterogeneous Equilibria focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches employed in the determination of the thermodynamics of heterogeneous equilibria. The publication first elaborates on thermodynamic background, phase rule, and general relations for binary equilibria. Discussions focus on linear contributions, G-curves and phase diagram, function changes, Clapeyron's equation, derivation of phase rule, pressure and temperature, heat capacity, enthalpy, and Gibbs energy. The manuscript then examines demixing, isothermal liquid-vapor equilibria, isobaric equilibria between two mixed states, and isobaric equilibria between unmixed solid and mixed liquid state. Topics include phase diagrams, pure solid component with liquid mixture, equilibrium between two ideal states, calculation of phase diagrams, and types of phase diagram. The text ponders on the interpretation of TX phase diagrams and retrograde equilibrium curves, including retrograde solubility, regions of demixing, excess parameters, and eutectic systems. The publication is a valuable reference for researchers wanting to dig deeper into the thermodynamics of heterogeneous equilibria.
Phase diagrams are "maps" materials scientists often use to design new materials. They define what compounds and solutions are formed and their respective compositions and amounts when several elements are mixed together under a certain temperature and pressure. This monograph is the most comprehensive reference book on experimental methods for phase diagram determination. It covers a wide range of methods that have been used to determine phase diagrams of metals, ceramics, slags, and hydrides. * Extensive discussion on methodologies of experimental measurements and data assessments * Written by experts around the world, covering both traditional and combinatorial methodologies * A must-read for experimental measurements of phase diagrams
This well-written text is for non-metallurgists and anyone seeking a quick refresher on an essential tool of modern metallurgy. The basic principles, construction, interpretation, and use of alloy phase diagrams are clearly described with ample illustrations for all important liquid and solid reactions. Gas-metal reactions, important in metals processing and in-service corrosion, also are discussed. Get the basics on how phase diagrams help predict and interpret the changes in the structure of alloys.
High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature studies. This book covers many aspects, from the fundamentals of phase diagrams, experimental and computational methods, applications, to the results of research. It provides an excellent source of information for a range of scientists such as materials scientists, especially ceramicists, metallurgists, solid-state physicists and chemists, and mineralogists.
Ceramic products are fabricated from selected and consolidated raw materials through the application of thermal and mechanical energy. The complex connec tions between thermodynamics, chemical equilibria, fabrication processes, phase development, and ceramic properties define the undergraduate curriculum in Ceramic Science and Ceramic Engineering. Phase diagrams are usually introduced into the engineering curriculum during the study of physical chemistry, prior to specialization into ceramic engineering. This creates an artificial separation between consideration of the equilibrium description of the chemically heterogeneous system and the engineering and physical processes required for phase, microstructure, and property development in ceramic materials. Although convenient for instructional purposes, the separa tion of these topics limits the effective application of phase diagram information by the ceramic engineer in research and manufacturing problem solving. The nature of oxide phases, which define their useful engineering properties, are seldom linked to the stability of those phases which underlies their reliability as engineered products. Similarly, ceramic fabrication processes are seldom dis cussed within the context of the equilibrium or metastable phase diagram. In this text, phase diagrams are presented with a discussion of ceramics' properties and processing. Particular emphasis is placed on the nature of the oxides themselves-their structural and dielectric properties-which results in unique and stable product performance. Any set of systematic property measurements can be the basis for a phase diagram: every experiment is an experiment in the approach to phase equilibrium.
Written by a leading practitioner and teacher in the field of ceramic science and engineering, this outstanding text provides advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students with a comprehensive, up-to-date Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems. Building upon a concise definition of the phase rule, the book logically proceeds from one- and two-component systems through increasingly complex systems, enabling students to utilize the phase rule in real applications. Unique because of its emphasis on phase diagrams, timely because of the rising importance of ceramic applications, practical because of its pedagogical approach, Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems offers end-of-chapter review problems, extensive reading lists, a solid thermodynamic foundation and clear perspectives on the special properties of ceramics as compared to metals.This authoritative volume fills a broad gap in the literature, helping undergraduate- and graduate-level students of ceramic engineering and materials science to approach this demanding subject in a rational, confident fashion. In addition, Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems serves as a valuable supplement to undergraduate-level metallurgy programs.
This book provides an introductory treatment of ternary equilibrium diagrams. It presents case studies in the field of metallurgy and material science. It is useful for undergraduates and postgraduates and scientists, who wish to acquire an understanding of ternary phase diagrams.
Materials are evolving faster today than at any time in history. As a consequence the engineer must be more aware of materials and their potential than ever before. In comparing the properties of competing materials with precision involves an understanding of the basic properties of materials, how they are controlled by processing, formed, joined and finished and of the chain of reasoning that leads to a successful choice. This book will provide the reader with this understanding. Materials are grouped into four classes: Metals, Ceramics, Polymers and Composites, and each are examined in turn. The chapters are arranged in groups, with a group of chapters to describe each of the four classes of materials. Each group first of all introduces the major families of materials that go to make up each materials class. The main microstructural features of the class are then outlined and the reader is shown how to process or treat them to get the structures (properties) that are wanted. Each group of chapters is illustrated by Case Studies designed to help the reader understand the basic material. This book has been written as a second level course for engineering students. It provides a concise introduction to the microstructures and processing of materials and shows how these are related to the properties required in engineering design. Unique approach to the subject World-renowned author team Improved layout and format