Phase lock loop frequency synthesis finds uses in a myriad of wireless applications - from local oscillators for receivers and transmitters to high performance RF test equipment. As the security and reliability of mobile communication transmissions have gained importance, PLL and frequency synthesisers have become increasingly topical subjects. Phase Lock Loops & Frequency Synthesis examines the various components that make up the phase lock loop design, including oscillators (crystal, voltage controlled), dividers and phase detectors. Interaction amongst the various components are also discussed. Real world problems such as power supply noise, shielding, grounding and isolation are given comprehensive coverage and solved examples with MATHCAD programs are presented throughout. * Presents a comprehesive study of phase lock loops and frequency synthesis in communication systems * Written by an internationally-recognised expert in the field * Details the problem of spurious signals in PLL frequency synthesizers, a topic neglected by available competing titles * Provides detailed theorectical background coupled with practical examples of state-of-the-art device design * MATHCAD programs and simulation software to accompany the design exercises and examples This combination of thorough theoretical treatment and guidance on practical applications will appeal to mobile communication circuit designers and advanced electrical engineering students.
Introducing a new, pioneering approach to integrated circuit design Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond Phase-Locked Loop introduces an innovative new way of looking at frequency that promises to open new frontiers in modern integrated circuit (IC) design. While most books on frequency synthesis deal with the phase-locked loop (PLL), this book focuses on the clock signal. It revisits the concept of frequency, solves longstanding problems in on-chip clock generation, and presents a new time-based information processing approach for future chip design. Beginning with the basics, the book explains how clock signal is used in electronic applications and outlines the shortcomings of conventional frequency synthesis techniques for dealing with clock generation problems. It introduces the breakthrough concept of Time-Average-Frequency, presents the Flying-Adder circuit architecture for the implementation of this approach, and reveals a new circuit device, the Digital-to-Frequency Converter (DFC). Lastly, it builds upon these three key components to explain the use of time rather than level to represent information in signal processing. Provocative, inspiring, and chock-full of ideas for future innovations, the book features: A new way of thinking about the fundamental concept of clock frequency A new circuit architecture for frequency synthesis: the Flying-Adder direct period synthesis A new electronic component: the Digital-to-Frequency Converter A new information processing approach: time-based vs. level-based Examples demonstrating the power of this technology to build better, cheaper, and faster systems Written with the intent of showing readers how to think outside the box, Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop is a must-have resource for IC design engineers and researchers as well as anyone who would like to be at the forefront of modern circuit design.
Phase Locked Loop frequency synthesis is a key component of all wireless systems. This is a complete toolkit for PLL synthesizer design, with MathCAD, SIMetrix files included on CD, allowing readers to perform sophisticated calculation and simulation exercises. Describes how to calculate PLL performance by using standard mathematical or circuit analysis programs
The latest frequency synthesis techniques, including sigma-delta, Diophantine, and all-digital Sigma-delta is a frequency synthesis technique that has risen in popularity over the past decade due to its intensely digital nature and its ability to promote miniaturization. A continuation of the popular Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock, Second Edition, this timely resource provides a broad introduction to sigma-delta by pairing practical simulation results with cutting-edge research. Advanced Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock discusses both sigma-delta and fractional-n—the still-in-use forerunner to sigma-delta—employing Simulink® models and detailed simulations of results to promote a deeper understanding. After a brief introduction, the book shows how spurs are produced at the synthesizer output by the basic process and different methods for overcoming them. It investigates how various defects in sigma-delta synthesis contribute to spurs or noise in the synthesized signal. Synthesizer configurations are analyzed, and it is revealed how to trade off the various noise sources by choosing loop parameters. Other sigma-delta synthesis architectures are then reviewed. The Simulink simulation models that provided data for the preceding discussions are described, providing guidance in making use of such models for further exploration. Next, another method for achieving wide loop bandwidth simultaneously with fine resolution—the Diophantine Frequency Synthesizer—is introduced. Operation at extreme bandwidths is also covered, further describing the analysis of synthesizers that push their bandwidths close to the sampling-frequency limit. Lastly, the book reviews a newly important technology that is poised to become widely used in high-production consumer electronics—all-digital frequency synthesis. Detailed appendices provide in-depth discussion on various stages of development, and many related resources are available for download, including Simulink models, MATLAB® scripts, spreadsheets, and executable programs. All these features make this authoritative reference ideal for electrical engineers who want to achieve an understanding of sigma-delta frequency synthesis and an awareness of the latest developments in the field.
A through discussion of frequency synthesizers, including design and effects on systems Working engineers who design, specify, use, or test frequency synthesizers need to develop an intimate understanding of how these devices operate and their effects on the systems in which they are embedded. Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock, Second Edition, offers complete coverage that includes both normal control system design and effects that occur due to sampling when bandwidths are pushed. While the discussion emphasizes phase-locked synthesizers, direct and digital synthesizers are covered as well. In addition to the usual discussion of second-order loops, this book describes characteristics of an important class of third-order loops and state-space analysis of loops of arbitrary order. It uses Matlab scripts (available for downloading via ftp) to produce computer-aided analyses, including complex nonlinear simulations of loops in the acquisition process; and it includes a significant volume of material on phase noise, its effects in synthesizer loops, and its impact on systems employing synthesizers. An important reference of rare power and clarity, Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock, Second Edition, features: * Three new chapters covering architectures, sampling effects, and computer-aided engineering (CAE) * Multicurve graphs of transient and modulation responses for second-and third-order loops * Graphs of phase noise from 28 oscillators and 19 frequency dividers; noise theory and curves for IC oscillators * Charge-pump phase-frequency detectors extensively covered * Fractional-N, including DSP for improved spectrums * Multiple loops, including offset references
How to acquire the input frequency from an unlocked state A phase locked loop (PLL) by itself cannot become useful until it has acquired the applied signal's frequency. Often, a PLL will never reach frequency acquisition (capture) without explicit assistive circuits. Curiously, few books on PLLs treat the topic of frequency acquisition in any depth or detail. Frequency Acquisition Techniques for Phase Locked Loops offers a no-nonsense treatment that is equally useful for engineers, technicians, and managers. Since mathematical rigor for its own sake can degenerate into intellectual "rigor mortis," the author introduces readers to the basics and delivers useful information with clear language and minimal mathematics. With most of the approaches having been developed through years of experience, this completely practical guide explores methods for achieving the locked state in a variety of conditions as it examines: Performance limitations of phase/frequency detector–based phase locked loops The quadricorrelator method for both continuous and sampled modes Sawtooth ramp-and-sample phase detector and how its waveform contains frequency error information that can be extracted The benefits of a self-sweeping, self-extinguishing topology Sweep methods using quadrature mixer-based lock detection The use of digital implementations versus analog Frequency Acquisition Techniques for Phase Locked Loops is an important resource for RF/microwave engineers, in particular, circuit designers; practicing electronics engineers involved in frequency synthesis, phase locked loops, carrier or clock recovery loops, radio-frequency integrated circuit design, and aerospace electronics; and managers wanting to understand the technology of phase locked loops and frequency acquisition assistance techniques or jitter attenuating loops. Errata can be found by visiting the Book Support Site at: http://booksupport.wiley.com
Phase Locked Loops (PLLs) are electronic circuits used for frequency control. Anything using radio waves, from simple radios and cell phones to sophisticated military communications gear uses PLLs.The communications industry’s big move into wireless in the past two years has made this mature topic red hot again. The fifth edition of this classic circuit reference comes complete with extremely valuable PLL design software written by Dr. Best. The software alone is worth many times the price of the book. The new edition also includes new chapters on frequency synthesis, CAD for PLLs, mixed-signal PLLs, and a completely new collection of sample communications applications.
This work is aimed at practitioners wishing to gain a broader systems-based perspective of phase-locked loops; and is also suitable as a graduate text for engineering students. It provides detailed coverage of digital sampling effects in modern phase-locked frequency synthesizers from a systems perspective, and discusses all aspects of phase noise, its mathematical modelling and its impact upon different digital communication systems. Sections on building blocks for frequency synthesis using phase-locked loops, frequency synthesis using sampled-data control systems, and MASCET, are included.
Featuring an extensive 40 page tutorial introduction, this carefully compiled anthology of 65 of the most important papers on phase-locked loops and clock recovery circuits brings you comprehensive coverage of the field-all in one self-contained volume. You'll gain an understanding of the analysis, design, simulation, and implementation of phase-locked loops and clock recovery circuits in CMOS and bipolar technologies along with valuable insights into the issues and trade-offs associated with phase locked systems for high speed, low power, and low noise.
The Definitive Introduction to Phase-Locked Loops, Complete with Software for Designing Wireless Circuits! The Sixth Edition of Roland Best's classic Phase-Locked Loops has been updated to equip you with today's definitive introduction to PLL design, complete with powerful PLL design and simulation software written by the author. Filled with all the latest PLL advances, this celebrated sourcebook now includes new chapters on frequency synthesis...CAD for PLLs...mixed-signal PLLs...all-digital PLLs...and software PLLs_plus a new collection of sample communications applications. An essential tool for achieving cutting-edge PLL design, the Sixth Edition of Phase-Locked Loops features: A wealth of easy-to-use methods for designing phase-locked loops Over 200 detailed illustrations New to this edition: new chapters on frequency synthesis, including fractional-N PLL frequency synthesizers using sigma-delta modulators; CAD for PLLs, mixed-signal PLLs, all-digital PLLs, and software PLLs; new PLL communications applications, including an overview on digital modulation techniques Inside this Updated PLL Design Guide • Introduction to PLLs • Mixed-Signal PLL Components • Mixed-Signal PLL Analysis • PLL Performance in the Presence of Noise • Design Procedure for Mixed-Signal PLLs • Mixed-Signal PLL Applications • Higher Order Loops • CAD and Simulation of Mixed-Signal PLLs • All-Digital PLLs (ADPLLs) • CAD and Simulation of ADPLLs • The Software PLL (SPLL) • The PLL in Communications • State-of-the-Art Commercial PLL Integrated Circuits • Appendices: The Pull-In Process • The Laplace Transform • Digital Filter Basics • Measuring PLL Parameters
All Digital Phase Locked Loops (ADPLLs) have become more attractive because they yield better testability, programmability, stability, and portability over different processes and the ADPLLs can reduce the system turn around time. Phase-locked loop mechanisms may be implemented as either analog or digital circuits. Both implementations use the same basic structure. The implemented ADPLL has two operation modes which are frequency acquisition mode and phase acquisition mode. In frequency acquisition mode, the ADPLL achieves a fast frequency locking via the proposed feed-forward compensation algorithm. In phase acquisition mode, the ADPLL achieves a finer phase locking.
A tutorial of phase-locked loops from analogue implementations to digital and optical designs. This text establishes a foundation of continuous-time analysis techniques and maintains a consistent notation as discrete-time and non-uniform sampling are presented. It examines charge pumps and the complementary sequential phase detector. Frequency synthesizers and digital divider analysis/techniques are also included in this edition.; Starting with a historical overview, presenting analogue, digital, and optical PLLs, discussing phase noise analysis, and including circuits/algorithms for data synchronization, this volume illustrates the techniques being used in this field.; The subjects covered include: development of phase-locked loops from analogue to digital and optical, with notation throughout; expanded coverage of the loop filters used to design second- and third-order PLLs; design examples on delay-locked loops used to synchronize circuits on CPUs and ASICS; new material on digital dividers that dominate a frequency synthesizer's noise floor; techniques to analytically estimate the phase noise of a divider; presentation of optical phase-locked loops with primers on the optical components and fundamentals of optical mixing; a section on automatic frequency control to provide frequency-locking of the lasers instead of phase-locking; and a presentation of charge pumps, counters, and delay-locked loops.; This volume includes the topics that should be of interest to wireless, optics, and the traditional phase-locked loop specialist to design circuits and software algorithms.