The book is designed as a text for undergraduate and graduate courses in sensory evaluation and as a reference for industrial practitioners. It covers all the basic techniques of sensory testing, from simple discrimination tests to home use placements for consumers. It provides a practical guide to how tests are conducted and, for the reader who wishes a deeper understanding, provides the fundamental psychological and statistical theories that form the basis and rationale for sensory test design. Statistics used in sensory evaluation are demonstrated as integrated applications in the context of appropriate sensory methods and are also presented as a stand-alone material in appendixes. Statistical applications are tailored to common and relevance are obvious, and space is not wasted on designs or analyses that are not suitable for data collection from human observers. The text presents divergent philosophies in a balanced manner. Chapters are constructed so that beginning students who want only practical aspects of conducting sensory tests will find clear instructions on how tests should be conducted. Advanced students and practitioners will profit from the detailed section on rationale and sensory evaluation issues. "It covers the entire spectrum of sensory analysis. I have read many books on this intriguing subject, but this is the Rolls-Royce." a?? Aubrey Parsons, governing council member, International Union for Food Science and Technology
The field of sensory evaluation has matured in the last half century to be come a recognized discipline in the food and consumer sciences and an important part of the foods and consumer products industries. Sensory pro fessionals enjoy widespread recognition for the important services they provide in new product development, basic research, ingredient and process modification, cost reduction, quality maintenance, and product op timization. These services enhance the informational support for manage ment decisions, lowering the risk that accompanies the decision-making process. From the consumers' perspective, a sensory testing program in a food or consumer products company helps ensure that products reach the market with not only good concepts but also with desirable sensory attrib utes that meet their expectations. Sensory professionals have advanced well beyond the stage when they were simply called on to execute "taste" tests and to provide statistical summaries of results. They are now frequently asked to participate in the decision process itself, to draw reasoned conclusions based on data, and to make recommendations. They are also expected to be well versed in an in creasingly sophisticated battery of test methods and statistical procedures, including multivariate analyses. As always, sensory professionals also need to understand people, for people are the measuring instruments that provide the basic sensory data. People are notoriously variable and diffi cult to calibrate, presenting the sensory specialist with many additional XV xvi PREFACE measurement problems that are not present in instrumental methods.
Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food covers the concepts of sensory physiology and the psychology of perception. This book is composed of 11 chapters that specifically consider the significance of these concepts in food sensory analysis. After providing a brief introduction to problems related to sensory evaluation in food industry, this book goes on examining the physiology and psychology of the senses. The succeeding chapters survey the status of methodology and appropriate statistical analyses of the results. These topics are followed by discussions on the problems of measuring consumer acceptance. Food acceptance and preference depend on human sensory responses. The remaining chapters describe the relationship between sensory characteristics and various physical and chemical properties of foods. This book will prove useful to food scientists and researchers.
The ?eld of sensory science has grown exponentially since the publication of the p- vious version of this work. Fifteen years ago the journal Food Quality and Preference was fairly new. Now it holds an eminent position as a venue for research on sensory test methods (among many other topics). Hundreds of articles relevant to sensory testing have appeared in that and in other journals such as the Journal of Sensory Studies. Knowledge of the intricate cellular processes in chemoreception, as well as their genetic basis, has undergone nothing less than a revolution, culminating in the award of the Nobel Prize to Buck and Axel in 2004 for their discovery of the olfactory receptor gene super family. Advances in statistical methodology have accelerated as well. Sensometrics meetings are now vigorous and well-attended annual events. Ideas like Thurstonian modeling were not widely embraced 15 years ago, but now seem to be part of the everyday thought process of many sensory scientists. And yet, some things stay the same. Sensory testing will always involve human participants. Humans are tough measuring instruments to work with. They come with varying degrees of acumen, training, experiences, differing genetic equipment, sensory capabilities, and of course, different preferences. Human foibles and their associated error variance will continue to place a limitation on sensory tests and actionable results. Reducing, controlling, partitioning, and explaining error variance are all at the heart of good test methods and practices.
Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used to evoke,measure, analyse and interpret responses to products perceivedthrough the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It isused to reveal insights into the way in which sensory propertiesdrive consumer acceptance and behaviour, and to design productsthat best deliver what the consumer wants. It is also used ata more fundamental level to provide a wider understanding of themechanisms involved in sensory perception and consumer behaviour. Quantitative Sensory Analysis is an in-depth and uniquetreatment of the quantitative basis of sensory testing, enablingscientists in the food, cosmetics and personal care productindustries to gain objective insights into consumer preference data– vital for informed new product development. Written by a globally-recognised learer in the field, this book issuitable for industrial sensory evaluation practitioners, sensoryscientists, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in sensoryevaluation and sensometricians.
From listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition covers all phases of sensory evaluation. Like its bestselling predecessors, this edition continues to detail all sensory tests currently in use, to promote the effective employment of these tests, and to describe major sensory evaluation practices. The expert authors have updated and added many areas in this informative guide. New to this edition are expanded chapters on qualitative and quantitative consumer research and the SpectrumTM method of descriptive sensory analysis that now contains full descriptive lexicons for numerous products, such as cheese, mayonnaise, spaghetti sauce, white bread, cookies, and toothpaste. Also new in this chapter is a set of revised flavor intensity scales for crispness, juiciness, and some common aromatics. The book now includes an overview of Thurstonian scaling that examines the decision processes employed by assessors during their evaluations of products. Another addition is a detailed discussion of data-relationship techniques, which link data from diverse sources that are collected on the same set of examples. With numerous examples and sample tests, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition remains an essential resource that illustrates the development of sensory perception testing.
Sensory Evaluation Practices examines the principles and practices of sensory evaluation. It describes methods and procedures for the analysis of results from sensory tests; explains the reasons for selecting a particular procedure or test method; and discusses the organization and operation of a testing program, the design of a test facility, and the interpretation of results. Comprised of three parts encompassing nine chapters, this volume begins with an overview of sensory evaluation: what it does; how, where, and for whom; and its origin in physiology and psychology. It then discusses measurement, psychological errors in testing, statistics, test strategy, and experimental design. The reader is also introduced to the discrimination, descriptive, and affective methods of testing, along with the criteria used to select a specific method, procedures for data analysis, and the communication of actionable results. The book concludes by looking at problems where sensory evaluation is applicable, including correlation of instrumental and sensory data, measurement of perceived efficacy, storage testing, and product optimization. This book is a valuable resource for sensory professionals, product development and production specialists, research directors, technical managers, and professionals involved in marketing, marketing research, and advertising.