The mathematical combinatorics is a subject that applying combinatorial notion to all mathematics and all sciences for understanding the reality of things in the universe. The International J. Mathematical Combinatorics is a fully refereed international journal, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of mathematical combinatorics, Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, non-Euclidean geometry, topology and their applications to other sciences.

This book teaches the finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method from the simplest concepts to advanced three-dimensional simulations. It uses plain language and high-quality graphics to help the complete beginner grasp all the concepts quickly and visually. This single resource includes everything needed to simulate a wide variety of different electromagnetic and photonic devices. The book is filled with helpful guidance and computational wisdom that will help the reader easily simulate their own devices and more easily learn and implement other methods in computational electromagnetics. Special techniques in MATLAB® are presented that will allow the reader to write their own FDFD programs. Key concepts in electromagnetics are reviewed so the reader can fully understand the calculations happening in FDFD. A powerful method for implementing the finite-difference method is taught that will enable the reader to solve entirely new differential equations and sets of differential equations in mere minutes. Separate chapters are included that describe how Maxwell’s equations are approximated using finite-differences and how outgoing waves can be absorbed using a perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary. With this background, a chapter describes how to calculate guided modes in waveguides and transmission lines. The effective index method is taught as way to model many three-dimensional devices in just two-dimensions. Another chapter describes how to calculate photonic band diagrams and isofrequency contours to quickly estimate the properties of periodic structures like photonic crystals. Next, a chapter presents how to analyze diffraction gratings and calculate the power coupled into each diffraction order. This book shows that many devices can be simulated in the context of a diffraction grating including guided-mode resonance filters, photonic crystals, polarizers, metamaterials, frequency selective surfaces, and metasurfaces. Plane wave sources, Gaussian beam sources, and guided-mode sources are all described in detail, allowing devices to be simulated in multiple ways. An optical integrated circuit is simulated using the effective index method to build a two-dimensional model of the 3D device and then launch a guided-mode source into the circuit. A chapter is included to describe how the code can be modified to easily perform parameter sweeps, such as plotting reflection and transmission as a function of frequency, wavelength, angle of incidence, or a dimension of the device. The last chapter is advanced and teaches FDFD for three-dimensional devices composed of anisotropic materials. It includes simulations of a crossed grating, a doubly-periodic guided-mode resonance filter, a frequency selective surface, and an invisibility cloak. The chapter also includes a parameter retrieval from a left-handed metamaterial. The book includes all the MATLAB codes and detailed explanations of all programs. This will allow the reader to easily modify the codes to simulate their own ideas and devices. The author has created a website where the MATLAB codes can be downloaded, errata can be seen, and other learning resources can be accessed. This is an ideal book for both an undergraduate elective course as well as a graduate course in computational electromagnetics because it covers the background material so well and includes examples of many different types of devices that will be of interest to a very wide audience.

A thing is complex, and hybrid with other things sometimes. Then, what is the reality of a thing? The reality of a thing is its state of existed, exists, or will exist in the world, independent on the understanding of human beings, which implies that the reality holds on by human beings maybe local or gradual, not the reality of a thing. Hence, to hold on the reality of things is the main objective of science in the history of human development.

Fundamentals of Photonics A complete, thoroughly updated, full-color third edition Fundamentals of Photonics, Third Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of light and matter. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advanced topics, such as Fourier optics and holography, photonic-crystal optics, guided-wave and fiber optics, LEDs and lasers, acousto-optic and electro-optic devices, nonlinear optical devices, ultrafast optics, optical interconnects and switches, and optical fiber communications. The third edition features an entirely new chapter on the optics of metals and plasmonic devices. Each chapter contains highlighted equations, exercises, problems, summaries, and selected reading lists. Examples of real systems are included to emphasize the concepts governing applications of current interest. Each of the twenty-four chapters of the second edition has been thoroughly updated.

The Mathematical Combinatorics (International Book Series) is a fully refereed international book series with ISBN number on each issue, sponsored by the MADIS of Chinese Academy of Sciences and published in USA quarterly comprising 110-160 pages approx. per volume, which publishes original research papers and survey articles in all aspects of Smarandache multi-spaces, Smarandache geometries, mathematical combinatorics, non-euclidean geometry and topology and their applications to other sciences.

International J. Mathematical Combinatorics is a fully refereed international journal. Topics in detail to be covered are: Smarandache multi-spaces with applications to other sciences, such as those of algebraic multi-systems, multi-metric spaces; Smarandache geometries; Differential Geometry; Geometry on manifolds; Topological graphs; Algebraic graphs; Random graphs; Combinatorial maps; Graph and map enumeration; Combinatorial designs; Combinatorial enumeration; Low Dimensional Topology; Differential Topology; Topology of Manifolds; Geometrical aspects of Mathematical Physics and Relations with Manifold Topology; Applications of Smarandache multi-spaces to theoretical physics; Applications of Combinatorics to mathematics and theoretical physics; Mathematical theory on gravitational fields; Mathematical theory on parallel universes; Other applications of Smarandache multi-space and combinatorics.

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 212, merges two long-running serials, Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science, digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contains contributions from leading authorities on the subject matter Informs and updates on the latest developments in the field of imaging and electron physics Provides practitioners interested in microscopy, optics, image processing, mathematical morphology, electromagnetic fields, electrons and ion emission with a valuable resource Features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing

Few-body physics covers a rich and wide variety of phenomena, ranging from the very lowest energy scales of atomic and molecular physics to high-energy particle physics. The papers contained in the present volume provide an apercu of recent progress in the field from both the theoretical and experimental perspectives and are based on work presented at the “22nd International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics”. This book is geared towards academics and graduate students involved in the study of systems which present few-body characteristics and those interested in the related mathematical and computational techniques.