This book contains a selection of papers presented at the first International Symposium on Windbreak Technology, summarising the available worldwide literature on windbreaks and the response, both positive and negative, to wind protection. State-of-the-art information is presented on general design criteria, and principles of planting and establishment for a wide range of conditions and objectives. It provides descriptive information of tree and shrub species for arid, semi-arid, temperate and tropical areas, and their use in windbreaks.
Agroforestry, the word coined in early seventies, has made its place in all the developed and the developing countries of the world and is now recognized as an important approach to ensuring food security and rebuilding resilient rural environments. India has been an all-time leader in agroforestry. The South and Southeast Asia region comprising India is often described as the cradle of agroforestry. Almost all forms of agroforestry systems exist across India in ecozones ranging from humid tropical lowlands to high-altitude and temperate biomes, and perhumid rainforest zones to parched drylands. The country ranks foremost among the community of nations not only in terms of this enormous diversity and long tradition of the practice of agroforestry, but also in fostering scientific developments in the subject. Agroforestry applies to private agricultural and forest lands and communities that also include highly erodible, flood-prone, economically marginal and environmentally sensitive lands. The typical situation is agricultural, where trees are added to create desired benefits. Agroforestry allows for the diversification of farm activities and makes better use of environmental resources. Owing to an increase in the population of human and cattle, there is increasing demand of food as well as fodder, particularly in developing countries like India. So far, there is no policy that deals with specifics in agroforestry in India. But, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research has been discussing on the scope of having a National Agroforestry Policy in appropriate platforms. However, evolving a policy requires good and reliable datasets from different corners of the country on the subject matter. This synthesis volume containing 13 chapters is an attempt to collate available information in a classified manner into different system ecologies, problems and solutions, and converging them into a policy support.
The book is a comprehensive manual of practice for execution of afforestation and tree planting programmes in arid and semi-arid tropics. It includes a compact running account of the technology of afforestation and the relevant principles and practices in management of afforestation projects. It provides a wide range of structured information and a number of model designs which can be gainfully put to use by the field level supervisors as also by the managers concerned with planning and control of such projects. Written by a practising specialist, the book is invaluable for anyone concerned with the practice of afforestation and tree planting, be he a tree hobbyist or a school teacher, a professional forester or a senior policy maker in government, an industrialist or a philanthropist, an environmental activist or a member of a community service organization.
Over the years, the interactions between land, ocean, biosphere and atmosphere have increased, mainly due to population growth and anthropogenic activities, which have impacted the climate and weather conditions at local, regional and global scales. Thus, natural hazards related to climate changes have significantly impacted human life and health on different spatio-temporal scales and with socioeconomic bearings. To monitor and analyze natural hazards, satellite data have been widely used in recent years by many developed and developing countries. In an effort to better understand and characterize the various underlying processes influencing natural hazards, and to carry out related impact assessments, Natural Hazards: Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Landslides, presents a synthesis of what leading scientists and other professionals know about the impacts and the challenges when coping with climate change. Combining reviews of theories and methods with analysis of case studies, the book gives readers research information and analyses on satellite geophysical data, radar imaging and integrated approaches. It focuses also on dust storms, coastal subsidence and remote sensing mapping. Some case studies explore the roles of remote sensing related to landslides and volcanoes. Overall, improved understanding of the processes leading to these hazardous events will help scientists predict their occurrence. Features Provides information on the physics and physical processes of natural hazards, their monitoring and the mapping of damages associated with these hazards Explains how natural hazards are strongly associated with coupling between land–ocean–atmosphere Includes a comprehensive overview of the role of remote sensing in natural hazards worldwide Examines risk assessment in urban areas through numerical modelling and geoinformation technologies Demonstrates how data analysis can be used to aid in prediction and management of natural hazards
General approaches to agroforestry development. Reviews of agroforestry R&D in Kenya. Agroforestry extension activities. Institutional issues in agroforestry development. Socioeconomic aspects of agroforestry development. Education and training for agroforestry development. Integrated agroforestry research. Agroforestry components research and development. Agroforestry systems modelling, databases, and seed supply.