Exploring the origins and evolution of magnetic fields in planets, stars and galaxies, this book gives a basic introduction to magnetohydrodynamics and surveys the observational data, with particular focus on geomagnetism and solar magnetism. Pioneering laboratory experiments that seek to replicate particular aspects of fluid dynamo action are also described. The authors provide a complete treatment of laminar dynamo theory, and of the mean-field electrodynamics that incorporates the effects of random waves and turbulence. Both dynamo theory and its counterpart, the theory of magnetic relaxation, are covered. Topological constraints associated with conservation of magnetic helicity are thoroughly explored and major challenges are addressed in areas such as fast-dynamo theory, accretion-disc dynamo theory and the theory of magnetostrophic turbulence. The book is aimed at graduate-level students in mathematics, physics, Earth sciences and astrophysics, and will be a valuable resource for researchers at all levels.
The cycle of day and night and the cycle of seasons are two familiar natural cycles around which many human activities are organized. But is there a third natural cycle of importance for us humans? On 13 March 1989, six million people in Canada went without electricity for many hours: a large explosion on the sun was discovered as the cause of this blackout. Such explosions occur above sunspots, dark features on the surface of the Sun that have been observed through telescopes since the time of Galileo. The number of sunspots has been found to wax and wane over a period of 11 years. Although this cycle was discovered less than two centuries ago, it is becoming increasingly important for us as human society becomes more dependent on technology. For nearly a century after its discovery, the cause of the sunspot cycle remained completely shrouded in mystery. The 1908 discovery of strong magnetic fields in sunspots made it clear that the 11-year cycle is the magnetic cycle of the sun. It is only during the last few decades that major developments in plasma physics have at last given us the clue to the origins of the cycle and how the large explosions affecting the earth arise. Nature's Third Cycle discusses the fascinating science behind the sunspot cycle, and gives an insider's perspective of this cutting-edge scientific research from one of the leaders of the field.
This book provides an understanding of the physics at work in sunspots and solar coronal loops, and offers a new approach to Magneto-Fluid-Dynamics (or Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics).The book stresses the use of electric currents in Magneto-Fluid-Dynamics. As a rule, authors discuss magnetic field lines without referring to the required electric currents. It also stresses the importance of electric space charges inside conductors that move in magnetic fields.
Mean-Field Magnetohydrodynamics and Dynamo Theory provides a systematic introduction to mean-field magnetohydrodynamics and the dynamo theory, along with the results achieved. Topics covered include turbulence and large-scale structures; general properties of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneity, isotropy, and mirror symmetry of turbulent fields; and turbulent electromotive force in the case of non-vanishing mean flow. The turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion is also considered. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of the general concept of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics, followed by a discussion on the back-reaction of the magnetic field on motion; the structure of the turbulent electromotive force; homogeneous and two-scale turbulence; turbulent electromotive force in the case of rotational mean motion; and the dynamo problem of magnetohydrodynamics. The dynamo theory, which is based on mean-field magnetohydrodynamics, is explained and its applications to cosmical objects are described. The remaining chapters explore toroidal and poloidal vector fields; a simple model of an α-effect dynamo; and spherical models of turbulent dynamos as suggested by cosmical bodies. This monograph will be of interest to physicists.
This book explores the dynamics of planetary and stellar fluid layers, including atmospheres, oceans, iron cores, and convective and radiative zones in stars, describing the different theoretical, computational and experimental methods used to study these problems in fluid mechanics, including the advantages and limitations of each method for different problems. This scientific domain is by nature interdisciplinary and multi-method, but while much effort has been devoted to solving open questions within the various fields of mechanics, applied mathematics, physics, earth sciences and astrophysics, and while much progress has been made within each domain using theoretical, numerical and experimental approaches, cross-fertilizations have remained marginal. Going beyond the state of the art, the book provides readers with a global introduction and an up-to-date overview of relevant studies, fully addressing the wide range of disciplines and methods involved. The content builds on the CISM course “Fluid mechanics of planets and stars”, held in April 2018, which was part of the research project FLUDYCO, supported by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.
Magnetic fields permeate space and affect many major astrophysical phenomena, but they are often ignored due to their perceived complexity. This self-contained introduction to astrophysical magnetic fields provides both a comprehensive review of the current state of the subject and a critical discussion of the latest research. It presents our knowledge of magnetic fields from the Early Universe, their evolution in cosmic time through to their roles in present-day galaxies, galaxy clusters and the wider intergalactic medium, with attention given to both theory and observations. This volume also contains an extensive introduction into magnetohydrodynamics, numerous worked examples, observational and mathematical techniques and interpretations of the observations. Its review of our current knowledge, with an emphasis on results that are likely to form the basis for future progress, benefits a broad audience of advanced students and active researchers, including those from fields such as cosmology and general relativity.
In a unique collaboration, Nature Publishing Group and Institute of Physics Publishing have published the most extensive and comprehensive reference work in astronomy and astrophysics. This unique resource covers the entire field of astronomy and astrophysics and this online version includes the full text of over 2,750 articles, plus sophisticated search and retrieval functionality and links to the primary literature. The Encyclopaedia's authority is assured by editorial and advisory boards drawn from the world's foremost astronomers and astrophysicists. This first class resource is an essential source of information for undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and seasoned professionals, as well as for committed amateurs, librarians and lay people wishing to consult the definitive astronomy and astrophysics reference work.
This reference encompasses the fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism in a single volume. Both sciences have applications in navigation, in the search for minerals and hydrocarbons, in dating rock sequences, and in unraveling past geologic movements such as plate motions they have contributed to a better understanding of the Earth. The book describes in fine detail the current state of knowledge and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the most basic concepts. It is an indispensable working tool not only for geophysicists and geophysics students but also for geologists, physicists, atmospheric and environmental scientists, and engineers.
There are two recurring themes in astrophysical and geophysical fluid mechanics: waves and turbulence. This book investigates how turbulence responds to rotation, stratification or magnetic fields, identifying common themes, where they exist, as well as the essential differences which inevitably arise between different classes of flow. The discussion is developed from first principles, making the book suitable for graduate students as well as professional researchers. The author focuses first on the fundamentals and then progresses to such topics as the atmospheric boundary layer, turbulence in the upper atmosphere, turbulence in the core of the earth, zonal winds in the giant planets, turbulence within the interior of the sun, the solar wind, and turbulent flows in accretion discs. The book will appeal to engineers, geophysicists, astrophysicists and applied mathematicians who are interested in naturally occurring turbulent flows.