This Second Edition of Sensory Evaluation Practices provides the background and understanding necessary to make informed decisions about managing a sensory evaluation program, designing tests, and interpreting and reporting results. The authors have been in the sensory management consulting business for more than 20 years and bring their expertise to the enthusiastic and comprehensive revision of this invaluable book. Sensory evaluation of a product is the measurement of what is perceived about that product—not only in terms of its efficacy, but also by the more subtle influences of sight, smell, taste, touch, and where applicable, sound. A key benefit from this exciting and quantitative science is cost reduction in product reformulation due to the ability to evaluate a product's consumer acceptance in the marketplace. Reveals changes in the field, particularly in the business view of sensory evaluation as a product information source Clarifies the relationships between product specialists/experts and sensory panels, between sensory and market research , and between study of perception and sensory evaluation of products Includes discussion of test requests and their "hidden agenda" product selection, and the relative merits of testing products from different (laboratory, pilot plant, production) sources Introduces two new methods of quantitative descriptive analysis and an investigation of the merits of product specific versus global panels Discusses affective testing and the advantages of various methods including testing with children, the interaction between sensory and market research, the use of employees versus non-employees, and the effect of the number of judgments on product decisions
The enjoyment of products is closely related to the senses, and in the case of food - mainly taste, aroma and texture. Sensory evaluation is a dynamic field concentrating on the utilization of humans for the measurement of sensory perceptions and/or their effect on food and taste acceptance. Since 1985 when the first edition of this book was published, there have been many changes in he field of sensory evaluation. Sensory Evaluation Practices, Third Edition provides a critical evaluation of all current developments in the field, recognizing the impact that the discipline has had within academic circles, in business, and the relationships between research developments and their applications. This new edition takes into consideration the impact of data processing systems, as well as the internet and its implications for the future of sensory evaluation. *Appeals to sensory experts both in academia and business *Discovered new optimization is based on integration of sensory descriptive and consumer research data *New sensory information with imagery
Sensory Evaluation Practices, Fifth Edition, presents the latest developments and methods of sensory evaluation, including those on the front end of innovation, consumer acceptance/preference, multivariate statistical analysis, discrimination testing, descriptive analysis, sensory claims substantiation for advertising, and information management. Additionally, related social psychological methods, such as laddering, design thinking, emotional profiling, and applications of qualitative and consumer co-creation and immersive techniques are explored. This book will be an ideal reference for sensory professionals, technical managers, product specialists and research directors in the food, beverage, cosmetics, and other consumer products industries of all sizes. Emphasizes the importance of scientific sensory methodology used to measure and understand consumer perception Illustrates the importance of planning, managing and communicating product sensory information in a way that is actionable to developers, marketers and legal counsel Presents how sensory science is becoming more influential at the front end of innovation Discusses measurement, the design of experiments, and how to understand key sensory drivers that most influence consumers Explores the global nature of products and how companies can benefit by having fundamental training programs in sensory and consumer science Contains demonstrated methods for test selection, application and measurement, and testing with the right consumer, including more typical usage environments Includes worked examples for interpreting and displaying results Features a new chapter on how to get your research published
The field of sensory evaluation has matured in the last half century to be come a recognized discipline in the food and consumer sciences and an important part of the foods and consumer products industries. Sensory pro fessionals enjoy widespread recognition for the important services they provide in new product development, basic research, ingredient and process modification, cost reduction, quality maintenance, and product op timization. These services enhance the informational support for manage ment decisions, lowering the risk that accompanies the decision-making process. From the consumers' perspective, a sensory testing program in a food or consumer products company helps ensure that products reach the market with not only good concepts but also with desirable sensory attrib utes that meet their expectations. Sensory professionals have advanced well beyond the stage when they were simply called on to execute "taste" tests and to provide statistical summaries of results. They are now frequently asked to participate in the decision process itself, to draw reasoned conclusions based on data, and to make recommendations. They are also expected to be well versed in an in creasingly sophisticated battery of test methods and statistical procedures, including multivariate analyses. As always, sensory professionals also need to understand people, for people are the measuring instruments that provide the basic sensory data. People are notoriously variable and diffi cult to calibrate, presenting the sensory specialist with many additional XV xvi PREFACE measurement problems that are not present in instrumental methods.
Understanding what the consumer wants and will accept are two of the most significant hurdles faced by anyone in new product development. Whether the concern is the proper mouth-feel of a potato chip, the sense of freshness" evoked by a chewing gum, or the weight and texture of a cosmetic, if the consumer doesn't find the product acceptable, it won't sell. Sensory evaluation testing is the process that establishes the consumer acceptability of a product. It can help identify issues before general production is begun and potentially bring to light issues that hadn't previously been considered a factor in the success of the project.
The ?eld of sensory science has grown exponentially since the publication of the p- vious version of this work. Fifteen years ago the journal Food Quality and Preference was fairly new. Now it holds an eminent position as a venue for research on sensory test methods (among many other topics). Hundreds of articles relevant to sensory testing have appeared in that and in other journals such as the Journal of Sensory Studies. Knowledge of the intricate cellular processes in chemoreception, as well as their genetic basis, has undergone nothing less than a revolution, culminating in the award of the Nobel Prize to Buck and Axel in 2004 for their discovery of the olfactory receptor gene super family. Advances in statistical methodology have accelerated as well. Sensometrics meetings are now vigorous and well-attended annual events. Ideas like Thurstonian modeling were not widely embraced 15 years ago, but now seem to be part of the everyday thought process of many sensory scientists. And yet, some things stay the same. Sensory testing will always involve human participants. Humans are tough measuring instruments to work with. They come with varying degrees of acumen, training, experiences, differing genetic equipment, sensory capabilities, and of course, different preferences. Human foibles and their associated error variance will continue to place a limitation on sensory tests and actionable results. Reducing, controlling, partitioning, and explaining error variance are all at the heart of good test methods and practices.
From listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition covers all phases of sensory evaluation. Like its bestselling predecessors, this edition continues to detail all sensory tests currently in use, to promote the effective employment of these tests, and to describe major sensory evaluation practices. The expert authors have updated and added many areas in this informative guide. New to this edition are expanded chapters on qualitative and quantitative consumer research and the SpectrumTM method of descriptive sensory analysis that now contains full descriptive lexicons for numerous products, such as cheese, mayonnaise, spaghetti sauce, white bread, cookies, and toothpaste. Also new in this chapter is a set of revised flavor intensity scales for crispness, juiciness, and some common aromatics. The book now includes an overview of Thurstonian scaling that examines the decision processes employed by assessors during their evaluations of products. Another addition is a detailed discussion of data-relationship techniques, which link data from diverse sources that are collected on the same set of examples. With numerous examples and sample tests, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition remains an essential resource that illustrates the development of sensory perception testing.
First Published in 1987, this book offers a full insight into the methods of evaluating the sensory capabilities in certain individuals. Carefully compiled and filled with a vast repertoire of notes, diagrams, and references this book serves as a useful reference for students of medicine and other practitioners in their respective fields.
Sensory Evaluation of Sound provides a detailed review of the latest sensory evaluation techniques, specifically applied to the evaluation of sound and audio. This three-part book commences with an introduction to the fundamental role of sound and hearing, which is followed by an overview of sensory evaluation methods and associated univariate and multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The final part of the book provides several chapters with concrete real-world applications of sensory evaluation ranging from telecommunications, hearing aids design and binaural sound, via the latest research in concert hall acoustics through to audio-visual interaction. Aimed at the engineer, researcher, university student or manager the book gives insight into the advanced methods for the sensory evaluation with many application examples. Introduces the fundamental of hearing and the value of sound Provides a firm theoretical basis for advanced techniques in sensory evaluation of sound that are then illustrated with concrete examples from university research through to industrial product development Includes chapters on sensory evaluation practices and methods as well as univariate and multivariate statistical analysis Six application chapters covering a wide range of concrete sensory evaluation study examples including insight into audio-visual assessment Includes data analysis with several associated downloadable datasets Provides extensive references to the existing research literature, text books and standards
A comprehensive review of the techniques and applications of descriptive analysis Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyse and interpret responses to products perceived through the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It is used to reveal insights into the ways in which sensory properties drive consumer acceptance and behaviour, and to design products that best deliver what the consumer wants. Descriptive analysis is one of the most sophisticated, flexible and widely used tools in the field of sensory analysis. It enables objective description of the nature and magnitude of sensory characteristics for use in consumer-driven product design, manufacture and communication. Descriptive Analysis in Sensory Evaluation provides a comprehensive overview of a wide range of traditional and recently-developed descriptive techniques, including history, theory, practical considerations, statistical analysis, applications, case studies and future directions. This important reference, written by academic and industrial sensory scientist, traces the evolution of descriptive analysis, and addresses general considerations, including panel set-up, training, monitoring and performance; psychological factors relevant to assessment; and statistical analysis. Descriptive Analysis in Sensory Evaluation is a valuable resource for sensory professionals working in academia and industry, including sensory scientists, practitioners, trainers and students, and industry-based researchers in quality assurance, research and development, and marketing.
This new edition of a bestseller covers all phases of performing sensory evaluation studies, from listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods. Like its predecessors, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fifth Edition gives a clear and concise presentation of practical solutions, accepted methods,
Laboratory exercises are a necessary part of science education. They enable students to better understand the principles discussed in lectures, and provide them with hands-on experience of the practical aspects of scientific research. The purpose of this book is to provide students and instructors with a time-tested set of lab exercises that illustrate the common sensory tests and/or sensory principles used in evaluation of foods, beverages and consumer products. The appendices will also include a set of simple problem sets that can be used to teach and reinforce basic statistical tests. Approximately twenty years ago the Sensory Evaluation Division of the Institute of Food Technologists sponsored the preparation of a set of exercises titled “Guidelines for Laboratory Exercises for a Course in Sensory Evaluation of Foods,” edited by one of the co-authors (Heymann). This book will provide additional materials from the second author (Lawless), as well as other instructors, in a uniform format that can be easily adopted for course use. Most importantly, the lab exercises will complement the flagship textbook in the field, Sensory Evaluation of Foods: Principles and Practices, 2E, also by Lawless and Heymann and published by Springer. Possible course adoption of the main text along with the lab manual should enhance the sales of these materials.