This volume features 29 invited papers presented at the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 1-2 July 2008 by colleagues, collaborators, students and friends of Professor J. Michael Rotter (FREng, FRSE, FICE, FASCE, FIStructE, FIEAust) in honour of his 60th birthday.The articles published in this volume will be of great value to readers as it contains con
This book contains accounts of state-of-the art approaches to the physics of granular matter, from a widely interdisciplinary and international set of experts in the field. The authors include theorists such as S F Edwards, J Krug and J Kurchan; the book is also unique in reporting current experimental approaches with, importantly, a detailed account of new techniques. It will serve as an invaluable handbook for all researchers, both novice and experienced, who wish to get quickly directed to open questions in key aspects of this challenging and topical domain. Contents: Models of Free Cooling Granular Gases (U M B Marconi et al.); The Steady State of the Tapped Ising Model (D S Dean & A Lefevre); Coarsening of Vortex Ripples in Sand (J Krug); Dense Granular Media as Athermal Glasses (J Kurchan); Liquid-Solid Transition in Bidisperse Granulates (S Luding); Surface Granular Flows: Two Related Examples (D V Khakhar et al.); Glassy States in a Shaken Sandbox (P F Stadler et al.); Granular Media as a Physics Problem (S F Edwards & D V Grinev); Nonlinear Elasticity and Thermodynamics of Granular Materials (H A Makse); Granular Flow Studies by NMR: A Chronology (E Fukushima); Random Multiplicative Response Functions in Granular Contact Networks (C F Moukarzel); and other papers. Readership: Students, researchers, academics and scientists working in industry.
Bringing together some of the most recognized and influential researchers and scientists in various space-related disciplines, Lunar Settlements addresses the many issues that surround the permanent human return to the Moon. Numerous international contributors offer their insights into how certain technological, physiological, and psychological challenges must be met to make permanent lunar settlements possible. The book first looks to the past, covering the Apollo and Saturn legacies. In addition, former astronaut and U.S. Senator Harrison H. Schmitt discusses how to maintain deep space exploration and settlement. The book then discusses economic aspects, such as funding for lunar commerce, managing human resources, and commercial transportation logistics. After examining how cultural elements will fit into habitat design, the text explores the physiological, psychological, and ethical impact of living on a lunar settlement. It also describes the planning/technical requirements of lunar habitation, the design of both manned and modular lunar bases, and the protection of lunar habitats against meteoroids. Focusing on lunar soil mechanics, the book concludes with discussions on lunar concrete, terraforming, and using greenhouses for agricultural purposes. Drawing from the lunar experiences of the six Apollo landing missions to the many American and Soviet robotic missions to current space activities and research, this volume summarizes the problems, prospects, and practicality of enduring lunar settlements. It reflects the key disciplines, including engineering, physics, architecture, psychology, biology, and anthropology, that will play significant roles in establishing these settlements.
The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007. Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geotechnical structures. The objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and engineers working or interested in the area of constitutive modeling to meet together and share new ideas, achievements and experiences through presentations and discussions. Emphasis is placed on recent advances of constitutive modeling and its applications in both theoretic and experimental aspects. Six famous scholars have been invited for the plenary speeches of the symposiums. Some prominent scholars have been invited to organize four specialized workshops on hot topics, including “Time-dependent stress-strain behavior of geomaterials”, “Constitutive modeling within critical state soil mechanics”, “Multiscale and multiphysics in geomaterials”, and “Damage to failure in rock structures”. A total of 49 papers are included in the above topics. In addition, 51 papers are grouped under three topics covering “Behaviour of geomaterials”, “Constitutive model”, and “Applications”. The editors expect that the book can be helpful as a reference to all those in the field of constitutive modeling of geomaterials.
Engineering structures may be subjected to extreme high-rate loading conditions, like those associated with natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, rock falls, etc.) or those of anthropic origin (impacts, fluid–structure interactions, shock wave transmissions, etc.). Characterization and modeling of the mechanical behavior of materials under these environments is important in predicting the response of structures and improving designs. This book gathers contributions by eminent researchers in academia and government research laboratories on the latest advances in the understanding of the dynamic process of damage, cracking and fragmentation. It allows the reader to develop an understanding of the key features of the dynamic mechanical behavior of brittle (e.g. granular and cementitious), heterogeneous (e.g. energetic) and ductile (e.g. metallic) materials.
Martin Oliver Steinhauser deals with several aspects of multiscale materials modeling and simulation in applied materials research and fundamental science. He covers various multiscale modeling approaches for high-performance ceramics, biological bilayer membranes, semi-flexible polymers, and human cancer cells. He demonstrates that the physics of shock waves, i.e., the investigation of material behavior at high strain rates and of material failure, has grown to become an important interdisciplinary field of research on its own. At the same time, progress in computer hardware and software development has boosted new ideas in multiscale modeling and simulation. Hence, bridging the length and time scales in a theoretical-numerical description of materials has become a prime challenge in science and technology.
The recent worldwide boom in industrial construction and the corresponding billions of dollars spent every year in industrial, oil, gas, and petrochemical and power generation project, has created fierce competition for these projects. Strong management and technical competence will bring your projects in on time and on budget. An in-depth explorat
The book is devoted to the consideration of the different processes taking place in thin films and at surfaces. Since the most important physico-chemical phenomena in such media are accompanied by the rearrangement of an intra- and intermolecular coordinates and consequently a surrounding molecular ensemble, the theory of radiationless multi-vibrational transitions is used for its description. The second part of the book considers the numerous surface phenomena. And in the third part is described the preparation methods and characteristics of different types of thin films. Both experimental and theoretical descriptions are represented. Media rearrangement coupled with the reagent transformation largely determines the absolute value and temperature dependence of the rate constants and other characteristics of the considered processes. These effects are described at the atomic or molecular level based on the multi-phonon theory, starting from the first pioneering studies through to contemporary studies. A number of questions are included at the end of many chapters to further reinforce the material presented. · Unified approach to the description of numerous physico-chemical phenomena in different materials · Based on the pioneering research work of the authors · Explantion of a variety of experimental observations · Material is presented at two levels of complexity for specialists and non-specialists · Identifies existing and potential applications of the processes and phenomena · Includes questions at the end of some chapters to further reinforce the material discussed
The recently proposed, fully multi-scale theory of doublet mechanics offers unprecented opportunities to reconcile the discrete and continuum representations of solids while maintaining a simple analytical format and full compatibility with lattice dynamics and continuum mechanics. In this monograph, a self-contained account of the state of the art in doublet mechanics is presented. Novel results in the elastodynamics of microstructured media are reported, including the identification of a new class of dispersive surface waves, and the presentation of methods for the experimental determination of the essential microstructural parameters. The relationships between doublet mechanics, lattice dynamics, and continuum theories are examined, leading to the identification of the subject areas in which the use of doublet mechanics is most advantageous. These areas include the analysis of domains as diverse as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), granular and particulate media, nanotubes, and peptide arrays.
Thin-walled metal shell structures are highly efficient in their use of material, but they are particularly sensitive to failure by buckiling. Many different forms of buckling can occur for different geometries and different loading conditions. Because this field of knowledge is both complex and industrially important, it is of great interest and concern in a wide range of industries. This book presents a compilation and synthesis of a wealth of research, experience and knowledge of the subject. Information that was previously widely scattered throughout the literature is assembled in a concise and convenient form that is easy to understand, and state-of-the-art research findings are thoroughly examined. This book is useful for those involved in the structural design of silos, tanks, pipelines, biodigestors, chimneys, towers, offshore platforms, aircraft and spacecraft. Buckling of Thin Metal Shells is essential reading for designers, researchers and code writers involved with thin-walled metal shell structures.
The topics discussed in this text range from quasi-static problems to dynamic problems, and are divided into 15 groups, such as: cohesion/cracking; wave propagation; and quasi-static behaviour. Each group contains theoretical, experimental and computational approaches by researchers.