A major failure of the juvenile justice system is to provide youth with career development skills that will ensure their successful entry into the workforce and reduce recidivism. This study had two purposes, which were to first examine the impact of career development on the formation of mature attitudes and competencies for realistic career decision-making for incarcerated youthful offenders, and second to determine the likelihood of gaining employment and the probability of recidivism for this population from participation in career development. A random sample (N = 50) was selected from a population of incarcerated youth offenders, approximately half of which participated in an employment program. The Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) was administered to both groups as pre- and posttests to measure the development of mature attitudes and competencies for realistic career decision-making. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between 6-month and one-year recidivism and employment with career development training in a sample of 1500 youth assigned to an incarceration facility. The first portion of the study did not produce significant differences from the two t test analysis, however, descriptive differences were noted between the groups. Regression analyses demonstrated that youth participating in a career development program were more likely to be employed at 6 months and one year post-intervention; however, there was no difference in recidivism. While the study had mixed results, this research enriches the ability of juvenile justice officials to prepare juvenile offenders for productive lives through career development programs; thus, increases in employment rates for youthful offenders represents a return on investment for the community.
This book provides practical examples of career development interventions that address social justice needs in a range of contexts across the lifespan. It’s grounded in research, a range of theoretical perspectives, sound program design, and professional competencies for best practices in multicultural career counseling and social justice advocacy.
More than 2 million adults are incarcerated in U.S. prisons, and each year more than 700,000 leave federal and state prisons and return to communities. Unfortunately, within three years, 40 percent will be reincarcerated. One reason for this is that ex-offenders lack the knowledge, training, and skills to support a successful return to communities. Trying to reduce such high recidivism rates is partly why states devote resources to educating and training individuals in prison. This raises the question ofhow effective -- and cost-effective -- correctional education is: an even more salient question given the funding environment states face from the 2008 recession and its continuing aftermath. With funding from the Second Chance Act of 2007, the Bureau ofJustice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, asked RAND to help answer this question as part of a comprehensive examination of the current state of correctional education for incarcerated adults and juveniles. The RAND team conducted a systematic review of correctional education programs for incarcerated adults and juveniles. This included a meta-analysis on correctional education's effects on recidivism and postrelease employment outcomes for incarcerated adults, as well as a synthesis of evidence onprograms for juveniles. The study also included a nationwide survey of state correctional education directors to understand how correctional education is provided today and the recession's impact. The authors also compared the direct costs of correctional education with those of reincarceration to put the recidivism findings into a broader context.
This volume, the first book dedicated to career development of children and adolescents, provides a broad and comprehensive overview of the current knowledge about the key career processes that take place in this age group.
This is the first comprehensive text to focus on youth emerging from care, offering a new theoretical framework to guide students, practitioners, administrators, and policymakers. The book features case vignettes, recommendations for practice and programs, and a multidimensional, integrative perspective on the effects of maltreatment on development, and common mental health disorders and treatment.