Tort law is often regarded as the clearest example of traditional common law reasoning. Yet, in the past 40 years, the common law of England and Wales has been subject to European influences as a result of the introduction of the European Communities Act 1972 and, more recently, the implementation of the Human Rights Act 1998 in October 2000. EU Directives have led to changes to the law relating to product liability, health and safety in the workplace, and defamation, while Francovich liability introduces a new tort imposing State liability for breach of EU law. The 1998 Act has led to developments in privacy law and made the courts reconsider their approach to public authority liability and freedom of expression in defamation law. This book explores how English tort law has changed as a result of Europeanisation - broadly defined as the influence of European Union and European human rights law. It also analyses how this influence has impacted on traditional common law reasoning. Has Europeanisation led to changes to the common law legal tradition or has the latter proved more resistant to change than might have been expected?
The Research Handbook on EU Tort Law focuses on the study of the law of tort/delict/non-contractual liability of the European Union and examines the institutional liability of the EU, Francovich liability, and liability arising from a variety of EU secondary legislation (directives/regulations). The impact of EU tort law on national legal systems is wide-ranging, covering areas such as consumer law, competition law, data protection law, employment law, insurance law and financial services law. It also discusses the potential development of a European culture of tort law and harmonisation. This comprehensive Research Handbook contains contributions from leading authors in their field, representing a cross-section of European jurisdictions. It offers an authoritative reference point for academics, students and practitioners studying or working in this field, but one which is also accessible for those approaching the subject for the first time.
The sixth edition of this market-leading tort law text provides a complete, authoritative guide to the subject. It combines clear overviews of the law with extracts from cases and materials supported by insightful commentary.
The development of private law across the common law world is typically portrayed as a series of incremental steps, each one delivered as a result of judges dealing with marginally different factual circumstances presented to them for determination. This is said to be the common law method. According to this process, change might be assumed to be gradual, almost imperceptible. If this were true, however, then even Darwinian-style evolution – which is subject to major change-inducing pressures, such as the death of the dinosaurs – would seem unlikely in the law, and radical and revolutionary paradigms shifts perhaps impossible. And yet the history of the common law is to the contrary. The legal landscape is littered with quite remarkable revolutionary and evolutionary changes in the shape of the common law. The essays in this volume explore some of the highlights in this fascinating revolutionary and evolutionary development of private law. The contributors expose the nature of the changes undergone and their significance for the future direction of travel. They identify the circumstances and the contexts which might have provided an impetus for these significant changes. The essays range across all areas of private law, including contract, tort, unjust enrichment and property. No area has been immune from development. That fact itself is unsurprising, but an extended examination of the particular circumstances and contexts which delivered some of private law's most important developments has its own special significance for what it might indicate about the shape, and the shaping, of private law regimes in the future.
This book takes a socio-legal approach and provides a rich and thorough understanding of tort law. Each section begins with a clear overview of the law, followed by illustrative extracts from case law and from government reports and scholarly literature, which are supported by explanation and analysis. This seventh edition has been brought completely up to date by Ken Oliphant and Donal Nolan.Digital formatsThe seventh edition is available for students and institutions to purchase in a variety of formats, and is supported by online resources.· The e-book offers a mobile experience and convenient access along with functionality tools and navigation features: www.oxfordtextbooks.co.uk/ebooks · All of OUP's tort law textbooks are supported by online resources including bi-annual updates on the latest key developments in tort law, and self-test questions on key topics, with feedback, providing an opportunity for students to test and consolidate their learning.
Authors from 13 countries come together in this edited volume, Common Law and Civil Law Today: Convergence and Divergence, to present different aspects of the relationship and intersections between common and civil law. Approaching the relationship between common and civil law from different perspectives and from different fields of law, this book offers an intriguing insight into the similarities, differences and connections between these two major legal traditions. This volume is divided into 3 parts and consists of 22 articles. The first part discusses the common law/civil law dichotomy in the international legal systems and theory. The second focuses on case-law and arbitration, while the third part analyses elements of common and civil law in various legal systems. By offering such a variety of approaches and voices, this book allows the reader to gain an invaluable insight into the historical, comparative and theoretical contexts of this legal dichotomy. From its carefully selected authors to its comprehensive collection of articles, this edited volume is an essential resource for students, researchers and practitioners working or studying within both legal systems.
The development of the law of obligations across the common law world has been, and continues to be, a story of unity and divergence. Its common origins continue to exert a powerful stabilising influence, carried forward by a methodology that places heavy weight on the historical foundations of legal principles. Divergence is, however, produced by numerous factors, including national and international human rights instruments, local statutory regimes, civil law influences, regional harmonisation, local circumstances and values and different political and legal cultures. The essays in this collection explore the forces that produce divergence, the countervailing forces that generate cohesion and consistency in the common law of obligations, and the influence that the major common law jurisdictions continue to exert over one another in this area of law. The chapters in this book were originally presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on the Law of Obligations held in Hong Kong in July 2014. A second collection, entitled Divergences in Private Law (ISBN: 9781782256601), will focus on particular departures from the common law mainstream and the causes and effects of those deviations.
This incisive volume of the Elgar Encyclopedia of Environmental Law offers a broad analysis of the foundations, main concepts, and substantive and procedural requirements of selected chemical law regimes as they pertain to the environment. Featuring contributions from more than 40 expert scholars and practitioners in the field, the volume focuses on chemical regulatory systems from representative jurisdictions, including the EU and the US, to provide a coherent overview of this expansive and often fragmented area of law. Divided into five thematic parts, the volume first examines the fundamental concepts of chemical law, addressing topics including risk assessment, nomenclature, environmental justice and animal testing. Entries then discuss types of chemicals and exposures, regulation of chemicals in products and manufacturing, and waste and contamination, as well as covering liability rules as they apply to chemicals. This volume will be an essential resource for scholars and students looking for a clear understanding of chemicals regulation and governance from environmental and public health perspectives at both national and international levels. Its insights into policy developments and liability issues will also be of interest to policymakers and practitioners.
The focus of the essays in this book is on the relationship between compensation culture, social values and tort damages for personal injuries. A central concern of the public and political perception of personal injuries claims is the high cost of tort claims to society, reflected in insurance premiums, often accompanied by an assumption that tort law and practice is flawed and improperly raising such costs. The aims of this collection are to first clarify the relationship between tort damages for personal injuries and the social values that the law seeks to reflect and to balance, then to critically assess tort reforms, including both proposals for reform and actual implemented reforms, in light of how they advance or hinder those values. Reforms of substantive and procedural law in respect of personal injury damages are analysed, with perspectives from England and Wales, Canada, Australia, Ireland and continental Europe. The essays offer valuable insights to anyone interested in the reform of tort law or the tort process in respect of personal injuries.
The sphere of public law is ill-defined and controversial. Taking the broad view that it comprises aspects of (for instance) constitutional principles, good and humane administration, judicial review based on the rule of law, human rights, liability for wrongdoing, public procurement, provision of public services, transparency, social media and protection of privacy – areas that link legal control to broad governmental purposes – the third edition of this established and much-praised work expands its examination of the emergence of European public law from European Union (EU) law (and its European Community and European Economic Community antecedents), the European Convention on Human Rights and the interface of these systems with Member State systems, to include the currently all-important challenge of Brexit. The book explains in detail what European public law is and the context in which laws interact in European societies. Masterfully summarising the debate surrounding the influence of EU and European Convention law on Member State law – particularly that of the United Kingdom (UK) – in a thematic and analytical manner, the author covers the following topics and much more as they persist in the shadow of Brexit: constitutional law and administrative law in the EU and France, Germany and the UK; subsidiarity in the EU and UK devolution; openness, transparency and access to information; national parliaments and scrutiny of EU law; influence of EU law on UK judicial review; access to justice in the light of austerity and government cuts in public expenditure; the future of the UK Human Rights Act; European influence on the law of liability; EU ombudsmen and internal grievance procedures; future relationship between EU and UK domestic law; citizenship and protection of human rights; competition, regulation, public service and the market; the impact of Brexit, the legal consequences of UK withdrawal legislation and European Public Law, the EU-UK written agreements on separation and the political statement’s prospects for a post-Brexit trade deal. Detailed analyses of major cases and legal provisions are featured throughout the book. Given that the effects of Brexit will take decades to unfold, and not only in the UK, this new edition of a classic text will prove to be an invaluable guide to the ever-developing European context of domestic public law. The indelible marks of European integration must be fully understood if we are to understand public law and its future direction. The book will be of enormous assistance to political theorists and scientists and commentators and of immeasurable practical and academic importance in monitoring the future of Europe and its legal relationship with the UK. Academics and students will be rewarded by the detailed analysis of the context in which national laws and European laws interact. Practitioners in the UK, Europe and globally will gain invaluable insight into the laws they use to resolve practical questions of legal interpretation.
EU Private Law and the CISG examines selected EU directives in the field of private law and their effects on the national private law systems of several EU Member States and discusses certain specific concepts of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in light of the CISG’s recent fortieth anniversary. The most prominent influence of EU law on national private law systems is in the area of the law of obligations, thus the book focuses on several EU private law directives that cover the issues belonging to contract and tort law, as interpreted in the case law of the Court of Justice of the EU. EU private law concepts need to be interpreted autonomously and uniformly rather than through the lens of national private law systems. The same is true for the CISG which has not only been one of the most successful instruments of the international trade law unification but had also influenced both the EU private law and domestic laws. In Part I, focused on the EU private law and its effects for national laws, chapters examine the recent Digital Content and Services Directive and its likely impact on the contract law of the UK and Ireland, the role aggressive commercial practices play in EU banking and credit legislation, the applicability of the EU private international law rules to collective redress, the unfair contract terms regime of the Late Payment Directive and its transposition into Croatian law, the implementation of the Commercial Agency Directive in Denmark, Estonia and Germany, and disgorgement of profits as remedy provided in the Trade Secrets Directive. In Part II, dealing with selected CISG issues, chapters discuss the autonomous interpretation of CISG’s concept of sale by auction and its notion of intellectual property, as well as the CISG’s principle of freedom of form and the possibility for reservations with the effect of its exclusion. The book will be of interest to legal scholars in the field of EU private law and international trade law, as well as to the students, practitioners, members of law reform bodies, and civil servants in Europe, and beyond.
In the wake of the global financial crisis, investors have suffered significant losses as a result of breaches of conduct of business rules in the distribution of financial instruments. MiFID II introduced new disclosure, distribution and product governance rules to strengthen the protection of investors but, like MiFID I, did not harmonise the civil law consequences for their violation. This book asks whether, in spite of the silence of the EU legislators, the MiFID II conduct of business rules may produce civil law effects, enabling investors to enforce them against investment firms before national courts and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms. Building on the case law of the CJEU, the book shows the conditions under which the breach of MiFID II conduct of business rules should give rise to a private law remedy, and what remedies would be compatible with EU law. MiFID II and Private Law is an essential contribution to academic research in EU and financial law and will be a key text for policy-makers and legal practitioners working in the field of investor protection regulation and mis-selling litigation.