The last ten years have seen China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) go through a difficult transition. With various developments in mind, the chapters attempt to assess BRI at ten through examining a series of country experiences in the Americas, the Pacific, and Asia.
"This volume assesses China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) as it approaches its tenth year in operation. The programme has gone through a difficult transition since its inception in 2013, with an environment developing in a way utterly unanticipated by Chinese decision-makers. Despite pragmatic adjustments to the BRI, the lack of a firm empirical base has impeded the BRI and led to its demise in many countries. With the accumulation of nearly ten years of project and economic data, it is possible to make an in-depth assessment of the BRI. For this purpose, the study examines the infrastructure component of the BRI in 39 countries, stretching from the Americas to Oceania and, finally, South Asia. The study finds a strong relationship between a country's progress in improved governance and the quality of its infrastructure. Countries that have benefited from the BRI have simultaneously achieved progress in governance areas, such as the rule of law and control of corruption. By not emphasizing improved governance structures, China condemns many of its partners to failure. Researchers, students, and economic development specialists from Latin America to South Asia and Oceania will find this study a useful departure from the volumes of anecdotal BRI assessments"--
This volume assesses China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) as it approaches its tenth year in operation. The programme has gone through a difficult transition since its inception in 2013, with an environment developing in a way utterly unanticipated by Chinese decision-makers. Despite pragmatic adjustments to the BRI, the lack of a firm empirical base has impeded the BRI and led to its demise in many countries. With the accumulation of nearly ten years of project and economic data, it is possible to make an in-depth assessment of the BRI. For this purpose, the study examines the infrastructure component of the BRI in 39 countries, stretching from the Americas to Oceania and, finally, South Asia. The study finds a strong relationship between a country’s progress in improved governance and the quality of its infrastructure. Countries that have benefited from the BRI have simultaneously achieved progress in governance areas, such as the rule of law and control of corruption. By not emphasizing improved governance structures, China condemns many of its partners to failure. Researchers, students, and economic development specialists from Latin America to South Asia and Oceania will find this study a useful departure from the volumes of anecdotal BRI assessments.
The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), officially unveiled in 2013, is Chinese President Xi Jinping’s signature foreign and economic policy initiative to achieve improved connectivity, regional cooperation, and economic development on a trans-continental scale. This book reviews the evolving BRI vision and offers a benefit-risk assessment of the BRI’s economic and geopolitical implications from the perspective of Asian stakeholder countries, using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Among the value added of the book is first an online perception survey of opinion leaders from Asian participating countries on various aspects of the initiative. To our best knowledge, the survey is the first of its kind. Second, the book presents the simulation results of a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy to estimate the potential macroeconomic impacts of the BRI as a whole and those of its constituent overland and maritime economic corridors. Third, the book makes ten key evidence-based policy recommendations on how to enhance the prospect of a successful and mutually beneficial BRI 2.0 to both China and stakeholder countries.
This book aims at illustrating the OBOR Initiative (also known as "Belt and Road Initiative" or BRI), its many facets, including its background, and how the Chinese government intends to develop this ambitious project. It describes in detail the role and involvement of Institutions (lenders, in particular) in the OBOR Initiative. It offers guidance on how interested parties can participate in the different projects connected to the Initiative. The views of the authors, on the main aspects of this Initiative, serve as suggestions to parties interested in taking part in this Initiative. The book provides an exceptional amount of information about how projects connected to the BRI Initiative are financed and developed. The involvement of UBS clearly shows that financial institutions are interested in financing the Initiative. There is a special focus on the relationship between China and the EU, because the scope of this Initiative is not only to boost trade relationships between the two regions but also create new opportunities for all the countries along the new Silk Road. Contents: "Belt & Road Initiative" as a Continuation of China's Reform and Opening Up and as a Consequence of the Beijing Consensus (Xugang Yu) China and the "Belt and Road" Initiative: What Is It All About? (Xugang Yu and Cristiano Rizzi) The First Pillar of the B&R Initiative Funding: The Institutional Funding (Cristiano Rizzi and Mario Tettamanti) The Second Pillar of the OBOR Funding: The Private Sector (Mario Tettamanti) The Second Pillar of the B&R Initiative Funding: The Private Sector (Mario Tettamanti) Global Implications of the "B&R" Initiative and Its Impact on the EU Economy (Cristiano Rizzi and Mario Tettamanti) EU Infrastructure Priorities Connected to the B&R Initiative, and the Necessity for Coordinated Efforts with China in Developing the B&R Initiative (Cristiano Rizzi) Relations between China and Italy: The Development of Diplomatic Ties and the Impact of the B&R Initiative and a Brief Overview on the EU and Italian Rules Regulating Public Works (Cristiano Rizzi) The Impact of the B&R Initiative on the Development of International Law, Particularly of the Law of Carriage of Goods and of "International Business" (Fabio E Ziccardi) Readership: Policymakers, academics, professionals, undergraduate and graduate students interested in China's One Belt One Road Initiative, financial, China's outbound investment and China-EU relations. Keywords: One Belt One Road;Infrastructure;Transportation;Outbound Investment;Merger and Acquisition;Funding;China-EU RelationsReview:0
This edited volume presents a trans-disciplinary and multifaceted assessment of the strategic and economic impacts of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) on three regions, namely Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Eastern Europe. The contributions to this book demonstrate the requirement of a more realistic view concerning the anticipated economic benefits of the New Silk Road. The contributors critique the strategic effects of China’s opaque long-term grand strategy on the regional and global political order. Specific countries that are covered are Finland, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Poland, and Thailand. Additionally, case studies from South Asia and Africa, notably India and Ethiopia, enable insightful comparisons. Encouraging readers to critically challenge mainstream interpretations of the aims and impacts of the BRI, this book should interest academics and students from various disciplines including Political Science, International Relations, Political Geography, Sociology, Economics, International Development, and Chinese Studies.
Since its announcement in 2013, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), also known as the New Silk Road, has gradually gained international recognition. The project requires not only extensive investment in infrastructure and transportation but also an acceleration of the internationalization of multinationals and supply chains in Belt and Road countries. The project will, hopefully, lead governments and businesses in countries along the Belt and Road to compete, adopt best practices and improve transparency. The BRI marks a national push by China to increase economic links to Southeast Asia, Central Asia, Russia, the Baltic region (Central and Eastern Europe), Africa and Latin America, which will have major consequences for the way that tax systems interact. Emerging from the research conducted by the WU Global Tax Policy Center in cooperation with several Chinese universities, this book offers fourteen policy-relevant research papers prepared by international experts on the following issues: • The New Silk Road: Will Tax Be a Facilitator or a Barrier? • Neo-BEPS: China’s Prescription for International Tax Reform Embodying the Rationality of the Belt & Road Initiative; • International Taxation Coordination under China’s Belt and Road Strategy; • Tax Issues in the Main Belt and Road Countries and Industries of China’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment; • Preferential Arrangements under Chinese Tax Treaties with Belt and Road Countries and Disputes Regarding Their Applicability; • Tax Planning by Going-Global Enterprises for Cross-Border Earnings: Observations Based on Belt and Road Countries; • International Taxation Issues under the Belt and Road Initiative: Corporate Income Tax Laws and Tax Treaties; • Financial and Tax Operations in the Five Central Asian Countries; • The Role of Border-Crossing Procedures in the Transportation of Goods along the New Silk Road; • Transfer Pricing Issues Related to the Belt and Road Initiative; • Tax Treaties between Belt and Road Countries; • VAT Challenges in the Belt and Road Initiative; • Global Tax Policy Post-BEPS and the Perils of the Silk Road; and • Creating a Positive Tax Climate for Complex Multijurisdictional Investment Projects. Outcomes presented in the book consist of findings presented during Tax Policy Forum on the Belt and Road Initiative held on 12–13 June 2017 in Beijing, jointly organized with Peking University Tax Law Center and the Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing. These papers also formed the basis for input by WU Global Tax Policy Center at the first meeting of The Belt and Road Initiative Tax Cooperation Conference (BRITCC) held in Astana on 14–16 May 2018, in which it was agreed to establish a permanent forum to examine the tax issues that arise from the BRI. The WU Global Tax Policy Center will continue to provide inputs to this forum.
Author: The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS)
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Political Science
The IISS Strategic Dossier China’s Belt and Road Initiative provides a geopolitical and geo-economic assessment of President Xi Jinping’s flagship foreign-policy initiative. The dossier explores the Belt and Road Initiative’s role in China’s domestic industrial strategy and in the country’s growing influence around the world. It studies how Beijing’s ambitions, management and financing of the initiative have evolved since its launch in 2013. In addition, the volume reflects on the future of China’s initiative following the COVID-19 pandemic. The dossier is organised around a region by region assessment of what Beijing has sought to achieve in different countries and how the Belt and Road Initiative has played out over time. The volume examines recipient countries’ responses to the Belt and Road Initiative and how these have affected it. It also looks at responses from other global and regional powers to China’s economic activities around the world and offers thoughts on ways the West might better contend with Beijing’s geo-economic influence.
For almost two decades, China has claimed that its expanding economy benefits Europe, stimulating European growth, exports, and employment. But the reality is not so clear-cut. Whilst individual companies may have profited from China’s economic rise,unbalanced trade with China has actually cost Europe over 1.4 trillion euros in the last ten years as well as undermining its political influence. China’s monumental infrastructural project, the Belt And Road Initiative or New Silk Road as it has come to be known - is set to make this situation even worse. The Silk Road Trap is the first book to expose just how risky this uneven partnership is for Europe. In it, leading expert on Asian affairs Jonathan Holslag, argues that Europe must reduce its reliance on China and work on building a stronger and more sustainable European economic model. By revealing the political aspirations and economic strategy behind the new Silk Road, he lays out its implications for specific European industries, from steel over aircraft to robots. Holslag, though critical of China, does not, however, make the case for confrontational, Trumpian protectionism. Instead, he posits that the new Silk Road need not ensnare Europe; it offers the continent a unique opportunity to transition from a future "made in China" to one that is "made in Europe".
Anil Sigdel dives into some of the most interesting trends in international relations, such as the rising influence of China and the instruments it uses to advance its interests worldwide, chiefly among them the Belt and Road Initiative(BRI) and the interplay between China and India, and what means New Delhi employs to come after China in the wider world. To this end, Sigdel takes both a geographic view by analyzing China’s and India’s relations with key regions – South East to Central Asia, Indian Ocean Region and Africa - and a functional view scrutinizing issues of relevance to the main topic – from cultural ties to infrastructure investment and maritime security. In his incisive analysis, Sigdel provides rich details on how India’s partnership is shaping with the major stakeholders in the Indo-Pacific region such US, Japan and France, and how India is balancing these partnerships vis-à-vis the one with Russia. The conclusions point to interesting prospects for the future – China challenge has, in a way, helped India further advance its own ambition of becoming a separate pole or leading power, therefore, India is likely to pursue that status by aligning issue-wise with all the powers.
China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is a potential gamechanger for the Central Asia and South Caucasus (CASC) region. CASC countries naturally view this massive development program as a unique opportunity to accelerate their economic development through increased foreign investment, upgraded physical infrastructure, and tighter economic relationships with their neighbors. Yet embracing the BRI is not without risks. Some BRI investments may prove to be fiscally unsustainable, economically and financially unviable, and socially and environmentally harmful. Inadequate cross-border coordination and infrastructure maintenance could render some BRI investments wasteful or redundant. If not proactively addressed, these risks have the potential to leave countries worse off for having participated in the BRI. Policymakers in the CASC region and their development partners, thus, face a daunting question: how to realize the promise of the BRI for their countries while avoiding the pitfalls that lie along the way? This book attempts to answer this question by leveraging the unique insights of development experts in the CASC region. Drawing on the most comprehensive review of BRI investment data conducted to date, this book presents a dynamic policy agenda that is relevant to any country in which China is building the Belt and Road.
This book not only discusses the uniqueness of the Belt and Road Initiative in the history of global integration, but also analyzes the reasons why the BRI conforms to European interests and maintains the stability of the world order. Jasna Plevnik believes that the BRI has a positive and farreaching influence on the economic cooperation and cultural exchange between Europe and China. If the European Union follows the United States’ policy to contain China, it would be a serious strategic mistake, as it would weaken its ability for economic and strategic transformation in the new landscape of international relations. She proposed that China and Europe, as the advanced and nongeopolitical powers, should continue to strengthen their partnership through financing, multilateral cooperation, and management of new projects to increase their prosperity. China and the EU have a moral duty to redefine global politics by acting in conformity with the principles of peace, mutual understanding, free trade, and cooperation.