The material presented in this volume is based on a series of lectures presented at an annual short course entitled "Integrated Optics" sponsored by the University of Cali fornia, Santa Barbara, in March of 1973. Each chapter has been authored by the individual lecturing on the particular subject matter con tained in that chapter. The primary intent of this book is to pro vide the students with a written version of the lecture material. The text treats a large variety of the basic structures and analysis techniques currently being employed in the rapidly growing area of technology termed "Integrated Optics." The volume contains both material that has previously been published in scientific journals and material which has not been published elsewhere. Since the field of integrated optics is in a stage of rapid expansion, a complete coverage of all the experimental results is difficult. As a result the emphasis is placed on the funda mental theoretical ideas and experimental results. The editor gratefully acknowledges the con tributing authors and the institutions with which they are associated for their wholehearted cooperation in the preparation of this book. Particular thanks are extended to the Hughes Research Laboratories, a division of the Hughes Aircraft Company.
All integrated optical components and devices make use of "waveguides", where light is confined by total internal reflection. The elements in such "photonic chip" are interconnected through waveguides, and also the integrated optics components themselves are fabricated using waveguide configuration, such as couplers, switches, modulators, multiplexors, amplifiers and lasers, etc. These components are integrated in a single substrate, thus resulting in a compact and robust photonic device, which can be optically connected through optical fibres. With and increase in the number of integrated optical components and devices emerging from the research laboratories to the market place an up-to-date book is essential in collecting, summarizing and presenting the new developed photonic devices. This includes fundamental aspects, technical aspects (such as fabrication techniques and materials) and characterisation and performance. This is an advanced text aimed at specialists in the field of photonics, but who may be new to the field of integrated photonics. The fundamental aspects have been carefully considered, and all the topics covered by the book start at a medium level, making it highly relevant for undergraduate and post-graduate students following this discipline.
This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update and augment the material contained in a previous ISQE volume, "Integrated Optics: Physics and Applications", S. Martellucci and A. N. Chester, Eds. , NATO ASI Series B, Vol. 91 (Plenum, 1983). For some closely related technology, the reader many also wish to consult the ISQE volumes: "Optical Fiber Sensors", A. N. Chester, S. Martellucci and A. M. Scheggi, Eds. , NATO ASI Series E, Vol. 132 (Nijhoff, 1987) ; and, "Nonlinear Optics and Optical Computing", S. Martellucci and A. N. Chester, Eds. , E. Majorana Int'! Science Series, Vol. 49 (plenum, 1990).
This volume contains the proceedings of a two-week NATO A.S.I. on Integrated Optics: Physics and Applications, held from August 17 to August 30, 1981 in Erice, Italy. This is the 8th annual Course of the "International School of Quantum Electronics" presented under the auspices of the "E. Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The subject was chosen in order to satisfy the demand for a course on integrated optics which is relevant to the expanding use of fiber optics for communication and signal processing. Integrated Optics, encompassing all of the optical waveguide circuits which are the optical analog of integrated circuits, is finding its way into a variety of applications involving communi cations, high speed signal-processing, and sensors of many kinds. However, because the technology is still changing very rapidly, the development of these exciting applications relies heavily upon the physics of the integrated optical circuits themselves and the pro cessing techniques used to fabricate them. This NATO A.S.I. provided not only a thorough tutorial treatment of the field, but also through panel discussions and additional lectures treated topics at the forefront of present work. Therefore the character of the Course was a blend of current research and tutorial reviews. "The Physics and Applications of Integrated Optics" could hardly be a more appropriate title to be chosen for this volume. Many of the worlds' acknowledged leaders in the field have been brought together to review and speculate on the accomplishments of integrated optics.
This book is an introduction to the theory and technology of integrated op tics for graduate students in electrical engineering, and for practicing engi neers and scientists who wish to improve their understanding of the princi pIesand applications ofthis relatively new, and rapidly growing, field. Integrated Optics is the name given to a new generation of opto-electro nie systems in which the familiar wires and cables are replaced by light waveguiding optical fibers, and conventional integrated circuits are replaced by optical integrated circuits (OIC's). In an OIC, the signal is carried by means of a beam of light rather than by an electrical current, and the various circuit elements are interconnected on the substrate wafer by optical wave guides. Some advantages of an integrated-optic system are reduced weight, increased bandwidth (or multiplexing capability), resistance to electro magnetic interference, and low loss signal transmission. Because of the voluminous work that has been done in the field of inte grated optics since its inception in the late 1960's, the areas of fiber optics and optical integrated circuits have usually been treated separately at confe rences and in textbooks. In the author's opinion, this separation is unfortu nate because the two areas are closely related. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that it may be a practical necessity.
Our intent in producing this book was to provide a text that would be comprehensive enough for an introductory course in integrated optics, yet concise enough in its mathematical derivations to be easily readable by a practicing engineer who desires an overview of the field. The response to the first edition has indeed been gratifying; unusually strong demand has caused it to be sold out during the initial year of publication, thus providing us with an early opportunity to produce this updated and improved second edition. This development is fortunate, because integrated optics is a very rapidly progressing field, with significant new research being regularly reported. Hence, a new chapter (Chap. 17) has been added to review recent progress and to provide numerous additional references to the relevant technical literature. Also, thirty-five new problems for practice have been included to supplement those at the ends of chapters in the first edition. Chapters I through 16 are essentially unchanged, except for brief updating revisions and corrections of typographical errors. Because of the time limitations imposed by the need to provide an uninterrupted supply of this book to those using it as a course text, it has been possible to include new references and to briefly describe recent developments only in Chapter 17. However, we hope to provide details of this continuing progress in a future edition.
Integrated Optics explains the subject of optoelectronic devices and their use in integrated optics and fiber optic systems. The approach taken is to emphasize the physics of how devices work and how they can be (and have been) used in various applications as the field of optoelectronics has progressed from microphotonics to nanophotonics. Illustrations and references from technical journals have been used to demonstrate the relevance of the theory to currently important topics in industry. By reading this book, scientists, engineers, students and engineering managers can obtain an overall view of the theory and the most recent technology in Integrated Optics.
Controlling the mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of materials by advanced fabrication methods (Le. ; Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) has become the new paradigm in our research era. Sensors, being the most vital part of the electronic data processing and decision making machines, stand to gain the most from engineering of the properties of materials. Microfabrication technology has already contributed significantly to the batch fabrication of micro-sensors with higher over all qualities compared to their counterparts that are fabricated using other methods. Batch fabrication of micro-sensors i) results in more uniform properties of co-fabricated devices, ii) nearly eliminates the need for characterization of individual sensors, and iii) eliminates a need for laborious alignment procedures. A less obvious benefit of using microfabrication methods is the possibility of precise control over the dimensions of the sensor. This control enables engineering of some of the properties of the material which affect the sensor's operation. There are many examples of this in the literature. Optical sensors are known to have superior properties over their counterparts that use other (i. e. ; electrostatic and magnetic) means of detection. To name a few, these advantages are: i) immunity to electromagnetic interferences, ii) higher sensitivities compared to the other types of sensors, iii) simplicity of operation principles, and iv) simplicity of overall construction.
The rapidly growing area of photonics plays a critical role in many segments of industry, such as optical communications, information storage, electronic display, and other areas, and is the subject of intense academic and industrial research. The Handbook of Photonics serves as a single-source reference book for this exciting field. The book is divided into three sections: Photonic Materials Photonic Devices and Optics Photonic Systems Each chapter within these sections is written by well-known and respected authors and covers the latest information in many of the important aspects of photonics. The Handbook of Photonics provides a complete reference for scientists, engineers, and students working in this field.
Photons are an attractive option for testing fundamental quantum physics and developing new quantum-enhanced technology, including highly advanced computers and simulators, as well as precision sensing beyond shot-noise. Traditionally, bulk optical components have been bolted onto optical benches to realize metre-scale quantum circuits. However this approach is ultimately proving unwieldy for increasing the complexity and for scaling up to practical quantum technologies based on photons. The work presented here demonstrates a series of quantum photonic devices based on waveguide circuits embedded in miniature monolithic chips. This represents a paradigm shift in the underlying architecture of quantum optics and provides key building blocks for all-optical and hybrid quantum technologies.