The book is designed as a text for undergraduate and graduate courses in sensory evaluation and as a reference for industrial practitioners. It covers all the basic techniques of sensory testing, from simple discrimination tests to home use placements for consumers. It provides a practical guide to how tests are conducted and, for the reader who wishes a deeper understanding, provides the fundamental psychological and statistical theories that form the basis and rationale for sensory test design. Statistics used in sensory evaluation are demonstrated as integrated applications in the context of appropriate sensory methods and are also presented as a stand-alone material in appendixes. Statistical applications are tailored to common and relevance are obvious, and space is not wasted on designs or analyses that are not suitable for data collection from human observers. The text presents divergent philosophies in a balanced manner. Chapters are constructed so that beginning students who want only practical aspects of conducting sensory tests will find clear instructions on how tests should be conducted. Advanced students and practitioners will profit from the detailed section on rationale and sensory evaluation issues. "It covers the entire spectrum of sensory analysis. I have read many books on this intriguing subject, but this is the Rolls-Royce." a?? Aubrey Parsons, governing council member, International Union for Food Science and Technology
Sensory Evaluation of Food: Statistical Methods and Procedure covers all of the basic techniques of sensory testing, from simple discrimination tests to home use placements for consumers. Providing a practical guide to how tests are conducted, the book explores the fundamental psychological and statistical theories that form the basis and rationale for sensory test design. It also demonstrates how statistics used in sensory evaluation can be applied in integrated applications in the context of appropriate sensory methods, as well as in stand-alone material in appendices. Offering a balanced view of diverse approaches, this is an essential guide for industry professionals and students.
The field of sensory evaluation has matured in the last half century to be come a recognized discipline in the food and consumer sciences and an important part of the foods and consumer products industries. Sensory pro fessionals enjoy widespread recognition for the important services they provide in new product development, basic research, ingredient and process modification, cost reduction, quality maintenance, and product op timization. These services enhance the informational support for manage ment decisions, lowering the risk that accompanies the decision-making process. From the consumers' perspective, a sensory testing program in a food or consumer products company helps ensure that products reach the market with not only good concepts but also with desirable sensory attrib utes that meet their expectations. Sensory professionals have advanced well beyond the stage when they were simply called on to execute "taste" tests and to provide statistical summaries of results. They are now frequently asked to participate in the decision process itself, to draw reasoned conclusions based on data, and to make recommendations. They are also expected to be well versed in an in creasingly sophisticated battery of test methods and statistical procedures, including multivariate analyses. As always, sensory professionals also need to understand people, for people are the measuring instruments that provide the basic sensory data. People are notoriously variable and diffi cult to calibrate, presenting the sensory specialist with many additional XV xvi PREFACE measurement problems that are not present in instrumental methods.
The ?eld of sensory science has grown exponentially since the publication of the p- vious version of this work. Fifteen years ago the journal Food Quality and Preference was fairly new. Now it holds an eminent position as a venue for research on sensory test methods (among many other topics). Hundreds of articles relevant to sensory testing have appeared in that and in other journals such as the Journal of Sensory Studies. Knowledge of the intricate cellular processes in chemoreception, as well as their genetic basis, has undergone nothing less than a revolution, culminating in the award of the Nobel Prize to Buck and Axel in 2004 for their discovery of the olfactory receptor gene super family. Advances in statistical methodology have accelerated as well. Sensometrics meetings are now vigorous and well-attended annual events. Ideas like Thurstonian modeling were not widely embraced 15 years ago, but now seem to be part of the everyday thought process of many sensory scientists. And yet, some things stay the same. Sensory testing will always involve human participants. Humans are tough measuring instruments to work with. They come with varying degrees of acumen, training, experiences, differing genetic equipment, sensory capabilities, and of course, different preferences. Human foibles and their associated error variance will continue to place a limitation on sensory tests and actionable results. Reducing, controlling, partitioning, and explaining error variance are all at the heart of good test methods and practices.
From listing the steps involved in a sensory evaluation project to presenting advanced statistical methods, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition covers all phases of sensory evaluation. Like its bestselling predecessors, this edition continues to detail all sensory tests currently in use, to promote the effective employment of these tests, and to describe major sensory evaluation practices. The expert authors have updated and added many areas in this informative guide. New to this edition are expanded chapters on qualitative and quantitative consumer research and the SpectrumTM method of descriptive sensory analysis that now contains full descriptive lexicons for numerous products, such as cheese, mayonnaise, spaghetti sauce, white bread, cookies, and toothpaste. Also new in this chapter is a set of revised flavor intensity scales for crispness, juiciness, and some common aromatics. The book now includes an overview of Thurstonian scaling that examines the decision processes employed by assessors during their evaluations of products. Another addition is a detailed discussion of data-relationship techniques, which link data from diverse sources that are collected on the same set of examples. With numerous examples and sample tests, Sensory Evaluation Techniques, Fourth Edition remains an essential resource that illustrates the development of sensory perception testing.
Understanding what the consumer wants and will accept are two of the most significant hurdles faced by anyone in new product development. Whether the concern is the proper mouth-feel of a potato chip, the sense of freshness" evoked by a chewing gum, or the weight and texture of a cosmetic, if the consumer doesn't find the product acceptable, it won't sell. Sensory evaluation testing is the process that establishes the consumer acceptability of a product. It can help identify issues before general production is begun and potentially bring to light issues that hadn't previously been considered a factor in the success of the project. Emphasizes the importance of a scientific sensory methodology used to measure and understand consumer perception Illustrates the importance of planning, managing, and communicating product sensory information in a way that is actionable to developers and marketers Presents demonstrated methods for test selection, application and measurement, and testing with the right consumer, including more typical usage environments Includes worked examples for interpreting and displaying results
A comprehensive review of the techniques and applications of descriptive analysis Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyse and interpret responses to products perceived through the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It is used to reveal insights into the ways in which sensory properties drive consumer acceptance and behaviour, and to design products that best deliver what the consumer wants. Descriptive analysis is one of the most sophisticated, flexible and widely used tools in the field of sensory analysis. It enables objective description of the nature and magnitude of sensory characteristics for use in consumer-driven product design, manufacture and communication. Descriptive Analysis in Sensory Evaluation provides a comprehensive overview of a wide range of traditional and recently-developed descriptive techniques, including history, theory, practical considerations, statistical analysis, applications, case studies and future directions. This important reference, written by academic and industrial sensory scientist, traces the evolution of descriptive analysis, and addresses general considerations, including panel set-up, training, monitoring and performance; psychological factors relevant to assessment; and statistical analysis. Descriptive Analysis in Sensory Evaluation is a valuable resource for sensory professionals working in academia and industry, including sensory scientists, practitioners, trainers and students, and industry-based researchers in quality assurance, research and development, and marketing.
Sensory evaluation plays a significant role in the food industry. Human senses affect decision making process of end consumers. Thus, it is important to understand them. This book presents the essential concepts in the field of sensory analysis and provides some incredible insights into consumer behavior and response. It discusses in detail the effective testing and affective testing methods for sensory evaluation. It also elucidates the concept of perception. This book will prove extremely beneficial to students, researchers and professionals engaged in this field.
This book is a practical guide to sensory evaluation methods and techniques in the food, cosmetic and household product industries. It explains the suitability of different testing methods for different situations and offers step-by-step instructions on how to perform the various types of tests. Covering a broad range of food and non-food product applications, the book is designed to be used as a practical reference in the testing environment; a training manual for new recruits into sensory science, and a course book for students undertaking industrial training or academic study.
This Second Edition of Sensory Evaluation Practices provides the background and understanding necessary to make informed decisions about managing a sensory evaluation program, designing tests, and interpreting and reporting results. The authors have been in the sensory management consulting business for more than 20 years and bring their expertise to the enthusiastic and comprehensive revision of this invaluable book. Sensory evaluation of a product is the measurement of what is perceived about that product—not only in terms of its efficacy, but also by the more subtle influences of sight, smell, taste, touch, and where applicable, sound. A key benefit from this exciting and quantitative science is cost reduction in product reformulation due to the ability to evaluate a product's consumer acceptance in the marketplace. Reveals changes in the field, particularly in the business view of sensory evaluation as a product information source Clarifies the relationships between product specialists/experts and sensory panels, between sensory and market research , and between study of perception and sensory evaluation of products Includes discussion of test requests and their "hidden agenda" product selection, and the relative merits of testing products from different (laboratory, pilot plant, production) sources Introduces two new methods of quantitative descriptive analysis and an investigation of the merits of product specific versus global panels Discusses affective testing and the advantages of various methods including testing with children, the interaction between sensory and market research, the use of employees versus non-employees, and the effect of the number of judgments on product decisions
Sensory evaluation is a scientific discipline used to evoke,measure, analyse and interpret responses to products perceivedthrough the senses of sight, smell, touch, taste and hearing. It isused to reveal insights into the way in which sensory propertiesdrive consumer acceptance and behaviour, and to design productsthat best deliver what the consumer wants. It is also used ata more fundamental level to provide a wider understanding of themechanisms involved in sensory perception and consumer behaviour. Quantitative Sensory Analysis is an in-depth and uniquetreatment of the quantitative basis of sensory testing, enablingscientists in the food, cosmetics and personal care productindustries to gain objective insights into consumer preference data– vital for informed new product development. Written by a globally-recognised learer in the field, this book issuitable for industrial sensory evaluation practitioners, sensoryscientists, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in sensoryevaluation and sensometricians.