A comprehensive survey of the epidemiology of common environmental exposures, this volume covers diet, water, particulates in outdoor air, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, environmental tobacco smoke, radon in homes, electromagnetic fields, and lead. Design and analysis issues, risk assessment and meta-analysis, and future directions in environmental epidemiology are also discussed. All chapters provide a review of the relevant literature as well as an overview of important methodologic issues, particularly exposure assessment and statistical methods. Most of these exposures are widespread and low-level, and are thought to increase the risk of chronic diseases that have many causes. Even though the disease risks due to these exposures may be low, the public health burden may be significant because large numbers of people are exposed. Such exposures are inherently difficult to detect via observational epidemiology. This book clarifies the problems and suggests ways to move forward. It will be useful to students and practitioners of public health, environmental health, and epidemiology.
Set against a background of growing public, media and political concern about occupational and environmental health issues, and a scientific need to better understand and explain the effects of pollutants on human health, this book is a unique resource. Contributions from an expert panel of international practitioners provide a comprehensive reference on the state of the art methods and applications in the field of occupational and environmental pollution and the adverse health effects, particularly the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. Risks associated with occupational and environmental exposure are generally small, but the exposed population, and hence the population attributable risk, may be large. To detect small risk, the exposure assessment needs to be very refined. Exposure assessment is the study of the distribution and determinants of potentially hazardous agents, and includes the estimation of intensity, duration and frequency of exposure, the variation in these indices and their determinants. The aim of this book is to develop an understanding and knowledge of exposure assessment methods and their application to substantive issues in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The emphasis is on methodological principles and good practice. It is focused on exposure assessment in both occupational and environmental epidemiology since there are many similarities but also some interesting differences. The book outlines the basic principles of exposure assessment, and examines the current status and research questions in the exposure assessment of occupational and environmental epidemiological studies of allergens, particulate matter, chlorination disinfection by-products, agricultural pesticides and radiofrequencies. The book will be of interest to all concerned with exposure assessment and epidemiology. It will be a valuable source for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in exposure assessment, occupational hygiene, environmental science, epidemiology, toxicology, biostatistics, occupational and environmental health, health risk assessment and related disciplines and a useful resource of reference for policy makers and regulators.
Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection guides front line public health practitioners through the decisions they are likely to face when dealing with environmental health problems. It does this by showing how to integrate relevant aspects of environmental science, communication sciences, toxicology, and most importantly environmental epidemiology skills to conduct initial investigations which encompass all relevant issues. The book uses a problem orientated style, using case studies, to provide practical examples of how to plan and carry out investigations or research projects. It emphasises the scoping and planning stages of a study in order to avoid common pitfalls, and includes discussions of the limitations of epidemiological studies, how to communicate with the public and funders, ethics and handling large datasets. Through the case studies the book also covers the practice of environmental public health in developed countries. Each chapter is written by knowledgeable practitioners in the topic, making Essentials of Environmental Epidemiology for Health Protection essential reading for all professionals in environmental public health in the UK and abroad.
The book describes the effects of air pollutants, from the indoor and outdoor spaces, on the human physiology. Air pollutants can influence inflammation biomarkers, can influence the pathogenesis of chronic cough, can influence reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce autonomic nervous system interactions that modulate cardiac oxidative stress and cardiac electrophysiological changes, can participate in the onset and exacerbation of upper respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases, can lead to the exacerbation of asthma and allergic diseases. The book also presents how the urban environment can influence and modify the impact of various pollutants on human health.
As the first title in the Essential Public Health series, Essentials of Environmental Health is a clear and comprehensive study of the major topics of environmental health, including: background of the field and “tools of the trade” (environmental epidemiology, environmental toxicology, and environmental policy and regulation); environmental diseases (microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation); and applications and domains of environmental health (water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, and occupational health). Perfect for the beginning student as well as the experienced health professional, each chapter concludes with study questions and exercises to engage the reader in further study. The forthcoming companion website for this edition will provide additional resources and learning aids, including PowerPoints, an instructor's manual, test questions, and flashcards.
The bestselling environmental health text, with all new coverage of key topics Environmental Health: From Global to Local is a comprehensive introduction to the subject, and a contemporary, authoritative text for students of public health, environmental health, preventive medicine, community health, and environmental studies. Edited by the former director of the CDC's National Center for Environmental Health and current dean of the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, this book provides a multi-faceted view of the topic, and how it affects different regions, populations, and professions. In addition to traditional environmental health topics—air, water, chemical toxins, radiation, pest control—it offers remarkably broad, cross-cutting coverage, including such topics as building design, urban and regional planning, energy, transportation, disaster preparedness and response, climate change, and environmental psychology. This new third edition maintains its strong grounding in evidence, and has been revised for greater readability, with new coverage of ecology, sustainability, and vulnerable populations, with integrated coverage of policy issues, and with a more global focus. Environmental health is a critically important topic, and it reaches into fields as diverse as communications, technology, regulatory policy, medicine, and law. This book is a well-rounded guide that addresses the field's most pressing concerns, with a practical bent that takes the material beyond theory. Explore the cross-discipline manifestations of environmental health Understand the global ramifications of population and climate change Learn how environmental issues affect health and well-being closer to home Discover how different fields incorporate environmental health perspectives The first law of ecology reminds is that 'everything is connected to everything else.' Each piece of the system affects the whole, and the whole must sustain us all for the long term. Environmental Health lays out the facts, makes the connections, and demonstrates the importance of these crucial issues to human health and well-being, both on a global scale, and in our homes, workplaces, and neighborhoods.