A comprehensive survey of the epidemiology of common environmental exposures, this volume covers diet, water, particulates in outdoor air, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, environmental tobacco smoke, radon in homes, electromagnetic fields, and lead. Design and analysis issues, risk assessment and meta-analysis, and future directions in environmental epidemiology are also discussed. All chapters provide a review of the relevant literature as well as an overview of important methodologic issues, particularly exposure assessment and statistical methods. Most of these exposures are widespread and low-level, and are thought to increase the risk of chronic diseases that have many causes. Even though the disease risks due to these exposures may be low, the public health burden may be significant because large numbers of people are exposed. Such exposures are inherently difficult to detect via observational epidemiology. This book clarifies the problems and suggests ways to move forward. It will be useful to students and practitioners of public health, environmental health, and epidemiology.
The book describes the effects of air pollutants, from the indoor and outdoor spaces, on the human physiology. Air pollutants can influence inflammation biomarkers, can influence the pathogenesis of chronic cough, can influence reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce autonomic nervous system interactions that modulate cardiac oxidative stress and cardiac electrophysiological changes, can participate in the onset and exacerbation of upper respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases, can lead to the exacerbation of asthma and allergic diseases. The book also presents how the urban environment can influence and modify the impact of various pollutants on human health.
Set against a background of growing public, media and political concern about occupational and environmental health issues, and a scientific need to better understand and explain the effects of pollutants on human health, this book is a unique resource. Contributions from an expert panel of international practitioners provide a comprehensive reference on the state of the art methods and applications in the field of occupational and environmental pollution and the adverse health effects, particularly the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. Risks associated with occupational and environmental exposure are generally small, but the exposed population, and hence the population attributable risk, may be large. To detect small risk, the exposure assessment needs to be very refined. Exposure assessment is the study of the distribution and determinants of potentially hazardous agents, and includes the estimation of intensity, duration and frequency of exposure, the variation in these indices and their determinants. The aim of this book is to develop an understanding and knowledge of exposure assessment methods and their application to substantive issues in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The emphasis is on methodological principles and good practice. It is focused on exposure assessment in both occupational and environmental epidemiology since there are many similarities but also some interesting differences. The book outlines the basic principles of exposure assessment, and examines the current status and research questions in the exposure assessment of occupational and environmental epidemiological studies of allergens, particulate matter, chlorination disinfection by-products, agricultural pesticides and radiofrequencies. The book will be of interest to all concerned with exposure assessment and epidemiology. It will be a valuable source for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in exposure assessment, occupational hygiene, environmental science, epidemiology, toxicology, biostatistics, occupational and environmental health, health risk assessment and related disciplines and a useful resource of reference for policy makers and regulators.
As the first title in the Essential Public Health series, Essentials of Environmental Health is a clear and comprehensive study of the major topics of environmental health, including: background of the field and “tools of the trade” (environmental epidemiology, environmental toxicology, and environmental policy and regulation); environmental diseases (microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation); and applications and domains of environmental health (water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, and occupational health). Perfect for the beginning student as well as the experienced health professional, each chapter concludes with study questions and exercises to engage the reader in further study. The forthcoming companion website for this edition will provide additional resources and learning aids, including PowerPoints, an instructor's manual, test questions, and flashcards.
The bestselling environmental health text, with all new coverage of key topics Environmental Health: From Global to Local is a comprehensive introduction to the subject, and a contemporary, authoritative text for students of public health, environmental health, preventive medicine, community health, and environmental studies. Edited by the former director of the CDC's National Center for Environmental Health and current dean of the School of Public Health at the University of Washington, this book provides a multi-faceted view of the topic, and how it affects different regions, populations, and professions. In addition to traditional environmental health topics—air, water, chemical toxins, radiation, pest control—it offers remarkably broad, cross-cutting coverage, including such topics as building design, urban and regional planning, energy, transportation, disaster preparedness and response, climate change, and environmental psychology. This new third edition maintains its strong grounding in evidence, and has been revised for greater readability, with new coverage of ecology, sustainability, and vulnerable populations, with integrated coverage of policy issues, and with a more global focus. Environmental health is a critically important topic, and it reaches into fields as diverse as communications, technology, regulatory policy, medicine, and law. This book is a well-rounded guide that addresses the field's most pressing concerns, with a practical bent that takes the material beyond theory. Explore the cross-discipline manifestations of environmental health Understand the global ramifications of population and climate change Learn how environmental issues affect health and well-being closer to home Discover how different fields incorporate environmental health perspectives The first law of ecology reminds is that 'everything is connected to everything else.' Each piece of the system affects the whole, and the whole must sustain us all for the long term. Environmental Health lays out the facts, makes the connections, and demonstrates the importance of these crucial issues to human health and well-being, both on a global scale, and in our homes, workplaces, and neighborhoods.
Essentials of Environmental Health is a clear and comprehensive study of the major topics of environmental health, including a background of the field and “tools of the trade” (environmental epidemiology, environmental toxicology, and environmental policy and regulation); Environmental diseases (microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation); and Applications and domains of environmental health (water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, and occupational health).
Environmental Health has established itself as the most succinct and comprehensive textbook on the subject. This extensively revised and rewritten third edition continues this tradition by incorporating new developments and by adding timely coverage of topics such as environmental economics and terrorism. As in previous volumes, the new edition presents balanced assessments of environmental problems, examining their local and global implications, their short- and long-range impacts, and their importance in both developed and less developed countries of the world. The Third Edition also addresses emerging issues such as environmental justice, deforestation, the protection of endangered species, multiple chemical sensitivity, and the application of the threshold concept in evaluating the effects of toxic and radioactive materials. Whether discussing acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, or more traditional subjects such as the management and control of air, water, and food, Dade Moeller emphasizes the need for a systems approach. As with previous volumes, Environmental Health, Third Edition, offers a depth of understanding that is without peer. While it covers technical details, it is also a book that anyone with an interest in the environment can pick up and browse at random.
Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Second Edition presents the newest release in this fundamental reference that updates and broadens the umbrella of environmental health— especially social and environmental health—for its readers. There is ongoing revolution in governance, policies and intervention strategies aimed at evolving changes in health disparities, disease burden, trans-boundary transport and health hazards. This new edition reflects these realities, mapping new directions in the field that include how to minimize threats and develop new scientific paradigms that address emerging local, national and global environmental concerns. Represents a one-stop resource for scientifically reliable information on environmental health Fills a critical gap, with information on one of the most rapidly growing scientific fields of our time Provides comparative approaches to environmental health practice and research in different countries and regions of the world Covers issues behind specific questions and describes the best available scientific methods for environmental risk assessment
Praise for Previous Editions: "This splendid book [...]is authoritative, well written, and ably edited." - Occupational & Environmental Medicine "The book provides a logical, structured exposition of a diverse multidisciplinary speciality, employing a language and format designed to educate the novice student and seasoned practitioner alike - a vital contribution to the field." - New England Journal of Medicine Occupational and environmental contributions to the occurrence of disease and injury represent a core component of public health and health care. Factors in the workplace and the ambient environment have significant impacts on individual and community health. Occupational and Environmental Health is a comprehensive, practical textbook for understanding how work and environment influence individual and population health. Comprising 40 chapters written by national and international experts, this book combines theory and practical insights to help readers effectively recognize and prevent occupational and environmental disease and injury.
This two-volume work discusses environmental health, the branch of public health concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment affecting human health, and addresses key issues at the global and local scales. The work offers an overview of the methodologies and paradigms that define this burgeoning field, ranging from ecology to epidemiology, and from pollution to environmental psychology, and addresses a wide variety of global concerns including air quality, water and sanitation, food security, chemical/physical hazards, occupational health, disease control, and injuries. The authors intend to provide up-to-date information for environmental health professionals, and to provide a reference for students and consultants working at the interface between health and environmental sectors. Volume 1 focuses on discussing the fundamentals of physical, chemical, and biological sciences in an environmental health context, and introduces the key concepts that bridge environmental health and medical sciences to accurately inform both environmental and medical professionals. The book addresses different specializations in medical science that account for environmental health issues, and aims to reduce the knowledge gap among professionals on public health topics such as pollution impacts, occupational hazards, radiation exposure, natural disasters, and climate change.