A comprehensive survey of the epidemiology of common environmental exposures, this volume covers diet, water, particulates in outdoor air, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, environmental tobacco smoke, radon in homes, electromagnetic fields, and lead. Design and analysis issues, risk assessment and meta-analysis, and future directions in environmental epidemiology are also discussed. All chapters provide a review of the relevant literature as well as an overview of important methodologic issues, particularly exposure assessment and statistical methods. Most of these exposures are widespread and low-level, and are thought to increase the risk of chronic diseases that have many causes. Even though the disease risks due to these exposures may be low, the public health burden may be significant because large numbers of people are exposed. Such exposures are inherently difficult to detect via observational epidemiology. This book clarifies the problems and suggests ways to move forward. It will be useful to students and practitioners of public health, environmental health, and epidemiology.
The book describes the effects of air pollutants, from the indoor and outdoor spaces, on the human physiology. Air pollutants can influence inflammation biomarkers, can influence the pathogenesis of chronic cough, can influence reactive oxygen species (ROS) and can induce autonomic nervous system interactions that modulate cardiac oxidative stress and cardiac electrophysiological changes, can participate in the onset and exacerbation of upper respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases, can lead to the exacerbation of asthma and allergic diseases. The book also presents how the urban environment can influence and modify the impact of various pollutants on human health.
As the first title in the Essential Public Health series, Essentials of Environmental Health is a clear and comprehensive study of the major topics of environmental health, including: background of the field and “tools of the trade” (environmental epidemiology, environmental toxicology, and environmental policy and regulation); environmental diseases (microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation); and applications and domains of environmental health (water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, and occupational health). Perfect for the beginning student as well as the experienced health professional, each chapter concludes with study questions and exercises to engage the reader in further study. The forthcoming companion website for this edition will provide additional resources and learning aids, including PowerPoints, an instructor's manual, test questions, and flashcards.
Essentials of Environmental Health is a clear and comprehensive study of the major topics of environmental health, including a background of the field and “tools of the trade” (environmental epidemiology, environmental toxicology, and environmental policy and regulation); Environmental diseases (microbial agents, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation); and Applications and domains of environmental health (water and air quality, food safety, waste disposal, and occupational health).
Set against a background of growing public, media and political concern about occupational and environmental health issues, and a scientific need to better understand and explain the effects of pollutants on human health, this book is a unique resource. Contributions from an expert panel of international practitioners provide a comprehensive reference on the state of the art methods and applications in the field of occupational and environmental pollution and the adverse health effects, particularly the exposure assessment in epidemiological studies. Risks associated with occupational and environmental exposure are generally small, but the exposed population, and hence the population attributable risk, may be large. To detect small risk, the exposure assessment needs to be very refined. Exposure assessment is the study of the distribution and determinants of potentially hazardous agents, and includes the estimation of intensity, duration and frequency of exposure, the variation in these indices and their determinants. The aim of this book is to develop an understanding and knowledge of exposure assessment methods and their application to substantive issues in occupational and environmental epidemiology. The emphasis is on methodological principles and good practice. It is focused on exposure assessment in both occupational and environmental epidemiology since there are many similarities but also some interesting differences. The book outlines the basic principles of exposure assessment, and examines the current status and research questions in the exposure assessment of occupational and environmental epidemiological studies of allergens, particulate matter, chlorination disinfection by-products, agricultural pesticides and radiofrequencies. The book will be of interest to all concerned with exposure assessment and epidemiology. It will be a valuable source for undergraduate and postgraduate courses in exposure assessment, occupational hygiene, environmental science, epidemiology, toxicology, biostatistics, occupational and environmental health, health risk assessment and related disciplines and a useful resource of reference for policy makers and regulators.
Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Second Edition presents the newest release in this fundamental reference that updates and broadens the umbrella of environmental health— especially social and environmental health—for its readers. There is ongoing revolution in governance, policies and intervention strategies aimed at evolving changes in health disparities, disease burden, trans-boundary transport and health hazards. This new edition reflects these realities, mapping new directions in the field that include how to minimize threats and develop new scientific paradigms that address emerging local, national and global environmental concerns. Represents a one-stop resource for scientifically reliable information on environmental health Fills a critical gap, with information on one of the most rapidly growing scientific fields of our time Provides comparative approaches to environmental health practice and research in different countries and regions of the world Covers issues behind specific questions and describes the best available scientific methods for environmental risk assessment