This book constitutes a landmark attempt to address, comprehensively and in-depth, a policy-focused approach to the many timely and important issues associated with building a culture of disaster prevention and disaster risk reduction. This book not only provides key insights into the field of natural hazard and disaster studies but also assesses the causes, perspectives, and consequences of natural disasters, as well as providing a global survey of post-recovery policies. The contributions found herein discuss disaster risk reduction strategies and policies for managing the unexpected and cascading impacts of natural disasters. A particular focus is placed on transboundary catastrophes that cross policy domains, geographic, political, and sectoral boundaries. Since the disaster management and natural resources policy research field draws on a diverse range of paradigms and influences, the book includes case histories, empirical studies, conceptual-theoretical investigations, policy perspectives, institutional analysis, and risk analyses. The role of human culture, disaster psychology and environmental monitoring are examined in depth. Deficiencies and inequalities in local, national, and global disaster response are also discussed. Original strategies for reducing disaster risk are put forward and the prospects for a major change in the direction of global policy on disasters. This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research.
South Asia represents a region highly prone to natural disasters. Disasters not only disrupt the normal life of the affected communities and the countries but also impede developmental efforts. By and large, the approach of the major stakeholders has been 'reactive' rather than 'proactive'. There is indeed, a dire need for concerted and well-planned efforts to achieve risk reduction through risk identification, and sharing and transfer of information. This edited volume explores how the risk of disasters can be reduced by structural and non-structural measures with detailed, comprehensive and participatory strategies. Twenty-seven contributors, both academicians and practitioners, investigate the challenges that the region faces and how changes can be effected at the community, society, government and non-government levels to foster a culture of preparedness. The overall focus is on risk reduction through prevention, preparedness, mitigation, response, recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Some case studies from different settings dealing with various disasters have also been included. Since disaster risk reduction is an area of great concern and there is absolute dearth of literature addressing this issue with regard to South Asia, this volume will be of immense utility and interest to government departments, NGOs, insurance companies, universities, training institutions, professional associates, media, general public, and students pursuing courses in disaster management.
The prevalence of natural disasters in recent years has highlighted the importance of preparing adequately for disasters and dealing efficiently with their consequences. This book addresses how countries can enhance their resilience against natural disasters and move towards economic growth and sustainable development. Covering a wide range of issues, it shows how well thought-out measures can be applied to minimize the impacts of disasters in a variety of situations. Starting with the need for coping with a rapidly changing global environment, the book goes on to demonstrate ways to strengthen awareness of the effectiveness of preventive measures, including in the reconstruction phase. The book also covers the roles played by different actors as well as tools and technologies for improved disaster risk reduction. It focuses on a variety of case studies from across Asia, Africa and Latin America, drawing out lessons that can be applied internationally. This book will be of great interest to professionals in disaster management, including national governments, donors, communities/citizens, NGOs and private sector. It will also be a highly valuable resource for students and researchers in disaster management and policy, development studies and economics.
Why did the people of the Zambesi Delta affected by severe flooding return early to their homes or even choose to not evacuate? How is the forced resettlement of small-scale farmers living along the foothills of an active volcano on the Philippines impacting on their day-to-day livelihood routines? Making sense of such questions and observations is only possible by understanding how the decision-making of societies at risk is embedded in culture, and how intervention measures acknowledge, or neglect, cultural settings. The social construction of risk is being given increasing priority in understand how people experience and prioritize hazards in their own lives and how vulnerability can be reduced, and resilience increased, at a local level. Culture and Disasters adopts an interdisciplinary approach to explore this cultural dimension of disaster, with contributions from leading international experts within the field. Section I provides discussion of theoretical considerations and practical research to better understand the important of culture in hazards and disasters. Culture can be interpreted widely with many different perspectives; this enables us to critically consider the cultural boundedness of research itself, as well as the complexities of incorporating various interpretations into DRR. If culture is omitted, related issues of adaptation, coping, intervention, knowledge and power relations cannot be fully grasped. Section II explores what aspects of culture shape resilience? How have people operationalized culture in every day life to establish DRR practice? What constitutes a resilient culture and what role does culture play in a society’s decision making? It is natural for people to seek refuge in tried and trust methods of disaster mitigation, however, culture and belief systems are constantly evolving. How these coping strategies can be introduced into DRR therefore poses a challenging question. Finally, Section III examines the effectiveness of key scientific frameworks for understanding the role of culture in disaster risk reduction and management. DRR includes a range of norms and breaking these through an understanding of cultural will challenge established theoretical and empirical frameworks.
Climate change is increasingly of great concern to the world community. The earth has witnessed the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere, changes in biodiversity, and more occurrences of natural disasters. Recently, scientists have begun to shift their emphasis away from curbing carbon dioxide emission to adapting to carbon dioxide emission. The increase in natural disasters around the world is unprecedented in earth's history and these disasters are often associated to climate changes. Many nations along the coastal lines are threatened by massive floods and tsunamis. Earthquakes are increasing in intensity and erosion and droughts are problems in many parts of the developing countries. This book is therefore to investigate ways to prepare and effectively manage these disasters and possibly reduce their impacts. The focus is on mitigation strategies and policies that will help to reduce the impacts of natural disasters. The book takes an in-depth look at climate change and its association to socio-economic development and cultures especially in vulnerable communities; and investigates how communities can develop resilience to disasters. A balanced and a multiple perspective approach to manage the risks associated with natural disasters is offered by engaging authors from the entire globe to proffer solutions.
This book outlines disaster risk reduction (DRR) approaches in Bangladesh, drawing examples and lessons from the national and community-level programs, projects, and relevant experiences of the country. The content is based on a selection of available documents, a consultative workshop with academicians from different universities undertaking DRR higher education programs, and the editors’ own knowledge and experience in the field. Special emphasis is given to analyzing field experiences from academic perspectives, and to highlighting key issues and the policy relevance of disaster risk reduction. The book has three parts: Part I provides the outline and basics of DRR, with examples from a global review and from national policies and priorities. Part II covers seven different hazards in Bangladesh, focusing on both shocks and stresses. Part III provides examples of approaches and issues of DRR practices. The primary target groups for this book are students and researchers in the fields of environment, disaster risk reduction, and climate change studies. The book will provide them with a good idea of the current trend of research in the field and will furnish basic knowledge on this important topic in Bangladesh. Another target group comprises practitioners and policy makers, who will be able to apply collective knowledge to policy and decision making.
This book discusses the interconnected, complex and emerging risks in today’s societies and deliberates on the various aspects of disaster risk reduction strategies especially through community resilience and responses. It consists of selected papers presented at the World Congress on Disaster Management, which focused on community resilience and responses towards disaster risk reduction based on South Asian experiences, and closely examines the coordinated research activities involving all stakeholders, especially the communities at risk. Further, it narrates the experiences of disaster risk-reduction in different communities that have policy implications for mitigation of future disaster risks in the societies affected by these types of disasters. Written from the social science perspective to disasters rather than an engineering approach, the book helps development and governance institutions to prioritize disasters as a problem of development rather than being parallel to it.
There is a perennial gap between theory and practice, between academia and active professionals in the field of disaster management. This gap means that valuable lessons are not learned and people die or suffer as a result. This book opens a dialogue between theory and practice. It offers vital lessons to practitioners from scholarship on natural hazards, disaster risk management and reduction and developments studies, opening up new insights in accessible language with practical applications. It also offers to academics the insights of the enormous experience practitioners have accumulated, highlighting gaps in research and challenging assumptions and theories against the reality of experience. Disaster Management covers issues in all phases of the disaster cycle: preparedness, prevention, response and recovery. It also addresses cross-cutting issues including political, economic and social factors that influence differential vulnerability, and key areas of practice such as vulnerability mapping, early warning, infrastructure protection, emergency management, reconstruction, health care and education, and gender issues. The team of international authors combine their years of experience in research and the field to offer vital lessons for practitioners, academics and students alike.
Science and Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia: Potentials and Challenges provides both a local and global perspective on how to implement the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Topics demonstrate the advancement of scientific research as it applies to early warning systems, including identifying risk and the strengthening of infrastructure for different types of hazards. Through different major disasters, it has become evident that there must be a balance between hard and soft technology and physical, process and social solutions. This book demonstrates how this has been successfully implemented in Asia, and how these applications can apply on a global basis. Covers new research on the role of science in Disaster Risk Reduction and lessons learned when research has been applied Utilizes case studies to outline the broader lessons learned Focuses on the Sendai Framework, which was adopted in the Third UN World Conference in 2015
With disasters increasing in both frequency and intensity, this timely Advanced Introduction provides a fresh perspective on how the concepts established in the Sendai Framework can be put into practice to reduce disaster risk, improve preparedness in cost-effective ways, and develop whole-of-society approaches to increasing resilience.
This book is a pioneering regional work and provides a balanced approach of theory and practice in disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Pakistan. The book analytically discusses the status of DRR and draws examples and lessons from national and community-level programs and projects and events in the country. The book covers different types of disasters facing Pakistan, including geo-physical and hydro-meteorological hazards. This work incorporates and draws some of the key lessons learned from the pre-disaster and disaster phases to the post-disaster phase, providing an effective framework in the form of those lessons. The rich content is based on a selection of available documents, a consultative workshop with academicians from different universities undertaking DRR higher education programs, and the editors’ own knowledge and experience in the field. Special emphasis is given to analyzing field experiences from academic perspectives, and pinpointing key issues and the policy relevance of DRR. Disaster Risk Reduction Approaches in Pakistan is organized into three sections with a total of 20 chapters. Section one provides the outline and basics of DRR strategies applied at the national level with supporting examples from a global review. Section two specifically highlights the wide ranges of hazards experienced in Pakistan and presents examples, policy options, institutional set-ups, risk reduction strategies, and key lessons learned. The third section of the book is given to approaches and issues of DRR practices with examples of disaster responses.
The number, intensity, and impact of diverse forms of 'natural' and 'human-made' disasters are increasing. In response, the international community has shifted its primary focus away from disaster response to prevention and improved preparedness. The current globally agreed upon roadmap is the ambitious Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, central to which is the better understanding of disaster risk management and mitigation. Sendai also urges innovative implementation, especially multi-sectoral and multi-hazard coherence. Yet the law sector itself remains relatively under-developed, including a paucity of supporting 'DRR law' scholarship and minimal cross-sectoral engagement. Commonly, this is attributable to limited understanding by other sectors about law's dynamic potential as a tool of disaster risk mitigation, despite the availability of many risk-related norms across a broad spectrum of legal regimes. This unique, timely Handbook brings together global and multi-sector perspectives on one of the most pressing policy issues of our time.